Primary submarines, surface units possible
Shkval (Russian for squall Шквал, English transcription Shkval ) is the name of a developed in the Soviet Union torpedoes with reactive drive, which uses the super-cavitation to reduce the flow resistance. The official name of the Russian Navy is WA -111 Shkval.
Because of the secrecy in this sector are being made public for the technology and application area of the Schkwal few precise information. The research on super-cavitation torpedoes at the Research Institute of Applied Hydromechanics began in the 1960s. These developed a prototype called M- fifth This had a rocket engine, which is used as a fuel hydrogen peroxide and kerosene. Based on the M -5 design was developed region of WA -111 Shkval later in the design office GNPO. The first test samples were delivered in 1977 to the Soviet Navy. The production version was introduced in 1992.
The Schkwal reached a speed of over 370 km / h It has a length of 8.2 meters and a weight of about 2700 kg. Before the main engine ignites, the Shkval is accelerated to sufficient for the generation of super-cavitation speed by eight annularly around the main engine Distributed small start engines. Gas discharge ports in the bow area to support the formation of the super-cavitation in addition. At the rear of the hull skids are unfolded after launch, which reach into the water beyond the cavern. They stabilize the torpedo like a tail. After starting the Shkval on the one hand, abspulenden wire to the launch site remains connected. Early versions were unguided, the newer models Schkwal -15 and Schkwal -15B have an actuator that can tilt the front of the cavitator in a plane. With only about an axis movable cavitator steering is possible in all directions because of the torpedo is rotated by the skids to rotate. A similar control principle is also used in some Russian air and anti-tank missiles used, is characteristic of the helical course of the trajectory.
A possible application of the Shkval torpedo is the defense against hostile submarines. Because submarines are Soviet-made until about 1980 as a relatively noisy, they were, for example, over comparatively quiet western hunting submarines at a disadvantage. Through the launch of Superkavitationstorpedos caused by their speed and enforcing defenses of the opposing submarine a time advantage. Another possible use variant of the Shkval is the destruction of aircraft carrier battle groups by means of a nuclear warhead.
- M -5: Unguided Initial Version kt with a nuclear warhead with 150. Speed 194 knots. Range 6.5-7 km.
- WA -111 Shkval: 1 series of unguided version with a nuclear warhead with 2-5 kt. Speed 200 knots. Reach 11 km.
- WA- 111E Shkval -E: Export version of the VA -111 from 1995 with a conventional 350 kg warhead.. Reach 7 km.
- Schkwal -15: first version with wire steering and nuclear warhead.
- Schkwal -15B: Improved Schkwal -15 with a conventional 100 kg warhead. Reach 11 km.
- Shkval -2: Improved version from 2005 with modified steering system and a conventional 210 kg warhead.. Range 15 km.
- BA -111 Flurry -M: Trial version from 2010 with greater depth and range as well as higher speed..
The Shkval weapon system was offered after the end of the Eastern Bloc of the successor states of the Soviet Union ( CIS ) other countries to buy. Exports probably went to Iran and China.