Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi
ʿ Abd al - Ghani ibn ʿ Abd al - Wahid ibn Surur al - Maqdisi Arabic عبد الغني بن عبد الواحد بن سرور المقدسي, DMG ʿ Abd al - Gani b. ʿ Abd al - Wahid b. Surur al - Maqdisi (* 1146 in Dschammā ʿ īl, in a mountain village near Nablus, † 1203 in Cairo ) was an outstanding representative of the Hanbali is considered the founder of the great biographies of the traditionists of the canonical collections of traditions.
In its multi-year study trips, he frequented the circles of the most famous scholars of his time in Baghdad, Mosul, Damascus, Jerusalem, Alexandria and Cairo, where he died after several years of teaching. Dhahabi († 1348 ) represents the CV and the scholarly activities of al - Maqdisi in his " Biography of distinguished scholars sizes " extremely detailed and introduces the titles of his works, which were known at that time in a specially dedicated section on two sides (Bd. 21, pp. 446-448 ) on. His most important teacher was as- Silafī with sphere Alexandria, which he visited several times and, according to al-Dhahabi, in his circle around a thousand books ( juz ʾ / ǧuz ʾ ) chronicled. The most important years of his training he spent in Damascus, where his family after the capture of the city by Nur ad -Din al- Zanki in 1154 and in the subsequent period under the Ayyubids had a major role in the formation of Islamic scholarship. He himself - but also other members of the al - Maqdisi - is mentioned in numerous colophons as participants in lectures in Damascus scholarly circles. In the collected certificates it shall be carried forward as forming teachers, as a copyist and as a listener in appearance.
Al - Maqdisi has become especially through his works, which have been preserved only partly known about the Hadith and its narrators. His most famous work in this area is its comprehensive biography of those narrators who are called in the six canonical hadith collections in the Isnaden. It is entitled:
- Al - ma ʿ rifat Kamāl fī ʾ al- Asmaa ridschāl ( الكمال في معرفة أسماء الرجال / al - ma ʿ rifat Kamāl fī ʾ al- Asmaa riǧāl /, the full in the knowledge of the names of the narrators ')
This work, which, however, several manuscripts exist have not yet been published, was the basis for the thirty-five -volume work of al - Mizzi († 1341 ), the corrected al - Maqdisīs information and expanded especially with other biographies of tradition Aryans, as narrators appear in the later hadith collections. This extension of the Full then processed Dhahabi under the title gilding of the expansion, shortened and supplemented with the names hitherto unnamed narrator of hadith literature. For this latter work then wrote Ahmad ibn ʿ Abd ibn Abī al - Chair Chazradschī († 1523), a three-volume summary ( Chulāsa ) and took into account the further processing of his predecessors. He also evaluated Hadithmaterialien those who have used the authors of the six canonical collections of traditions in their other works.
Al- Maqdisīs work and its extension or summary in subsequent generations are the basics of hadith criticism, whose literary documented beginnings are detectable as early as the 8th century.
- ʿ Umdat al - Ahkam min Kalam chair al - Anam ( عمدة الأحكام من كلام خير الأنام / ʿ Umdat al - Ahkam min Kalam Hairi ʾ l - anam /, The rest of the rules from the statements of the best of the people ' (ie Muhammad ) ) is a large-scale and arranged according to the chapters of Islamic jurisprudence collection of very relevant hadith by the Prophet. Part of it, which includes only the most important traditions of the Prophet and his companions on the Wallfahtszeremonien, was published in Beirut in 1987.
- Mihnat al - Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal al- Shaybani ( محنة الامام أحمد بن حنبل الشيباني / Miḥnat al - Imaam Ahmad b. Ḥanbal aš - Šaibānī /, The Inquisition against Ahmad ibn Hanbal ' ) summarizes the interrogation and punishment together, the Ahmad ibn Hanbal had suffered at the time of the Mu'tazilah on the question whether the Qur'an is created ( Khalq al -Qur ʾ ān ), and whether the man can see God on the Day of resurrection.
- Ad - Durra al - ʾ a fī ʾ s Mudi - Sira on - nabawiyya ( الدرة المضيئة في السيرة النبوية /, the shining pearl on the biography of the Prophet ') is a shortened version of the Sira of Mohammed. The latter two works are available only in manuscripts and have not yet been printed.