Alexander Butlerov

Alexander Mikhailovich Butlerov (Russian Александр Михайлович Бутлеров, scientific transliteration Aleksandr Butlerov Michajlovič; * 25 Augustjul / September 6 1828greg in Tschistopol; † 5 Augustjul / August 17 1886greg in Biarritz - according to other data in Butlerowka. .. . ) was a Russian chemist and professor.


Butlerov studied from 1844 to 1849 chemistry at the University of Kazan. In 1854 he received his doctorate at the University of Moscow. From 1857 Butlerov was again a professor of chemistry in Kazan. From 1868 to 1885 he held a chair of chemistry at the University of Saint Petersburg. Butlerov spoke and wrote a very good German. From Emil Erlenmeyer him even the offer had been made to launch the "Journal of Chemistry " in Russia.

The crater Butlerov on the Moon is named after him in 1970.


Butlerov led the basis of studies of isomers, the terms structure and structural formula in chemistry a. As a building block of organic compounds he went from a tetravalent carbon atom and defined organic chemistry as " chemistry of carbon compounds. " His research has served to consolidate the structure theory, including the synthesis of theoretically possible Isomereren. He synthesized in 1863 of tert-butanol from acetyl chloride and dimethyl zinc. Butlerov examined as the first systematic polymerization reactions. Starting from lime and formaldehyde, he synthesized a mixture of hexoses. These sugar synthesis was the first complete synthesis of a sweet substance. The later of Peter Conrad Laar as " tautomerism " designated appearance Butlerov recognized as a dynamic equilibrium between two isomers. He realized commercial applications of chemistry and founded factories for the production of soap and matches. He also pushed for the development of agriculture in Russia.

Works (selection)

  • Sur la structure Chimique de quelques hydrocarbures non- saturés. Eggers, St. Petersburg; Kymmel, Riga; Voss in Cpomm, Leipzig 1870 ( Mémoires de l' Académie des Sciences de St. Imperiale Pétersbourg Imperatorskaja Academia Nauk St. Petersbourg Impr de l' Acad, 1809. .. Sér 7, 15.7. ).
  • Condensation of hydrocarbures de la série éthylénique. 2 vols. St Pétersbourg 1879/79
  • Textbook of organic chemistry. An introduction to the especial study of them. Increased from Russian translated German edition of Verfasser'revidiert and with additives. Quandt & Händel, Leipzig 1868