Alma Bridwell White

Alma Bridwell White - " Mollie " ( born June 16, 1862 in Kinniconick, Lewis County, Kentucky, † June 26, 1946 ) was the founder of the Methodist Pentecostal Church Pillar of Fire International. In 1918 she was appointed the first bishop in the United States. In addition, she was known for her association with the Ku Klux Klan, her feminism, their anti-Semitism, their negative attitude toward Catholicism and Pentecostalism, their racism and rejection of immigrants.


The daughter of William Moncure Bridwell (1825-1907) and Mary Ann Harrison (1832-1921) was born on 16 June 1862 in Kinniconick, Lewis County, Kentucky, and grew up there with six sisters. At age 16, she experienced under William Baxter Godbey a " revival ," whereupon she joined the Methodists. About this experience she wrote: "Some were so overwhelmed, they left the room, vomited her dinner and stumbled back into the house, pale as death. "

Their training made ​​them at the Millersburg Female College, Millersburg. After that, she accepted an invitation to Montana. An aunt had invited that one of the seven Bridwell sisters may come to Montana; Alma was the last they asked, but the only one who dared the long journey. 1882, she traveled to Bannack, Montana and stayed to teach there, first in school and later in the Methodist seminary in Salt Lake City. 1887 she married Kent White ( 1860-1940 ), a student at the Methodist seminary. They had two sons, Ray Bridwell White and Arthur Kent White.

With her husband she founded in 1901 the Methodist Pentecostal Union Church in Denver, Colorado. Your cooperation included the line style of chant and prayer times as well as occasional sermons. In 1907 Caroline Garretson a farm establishing a community in Zarephath, New Jersey.

1918 White by William Baxter Godbey was appointed "bishop" and was the first bishop in America. She died on 26 June 1946 in Zarephath.

Feminism, intolerance and Ku Klux Klan

As a feminist, White was an important advocate for the equality of white, Protestant women. However, she was just as uncompromising in their attacks on religious and racial minorities. It justified both established as biblical. Most of their biting political attacks were the Catholic Church to the goal, but they also promoted anti-Semitism, White Supremacy and intolerance towards immigrants.

Under her leadership, the Pillar of Fire Church developed a close and public partnership with the Ku Klux Klan. White supported the Ku Klux Klan in every way. She allowed Klan meetings and cross burnings on different plots of the Pillar of Fire Church and occasionally even took it in part. In the monthly magazine, The Good Citizen, they propagated the ideology of the Ku Klux Klan. And even after their connection to the Ku Klux Klan was relaxed in the 1930s, she published in the 1940s, revised editions of their books on the Klan in a three-volume edition under the name Guardians of Liberty.


  • Alma White: Looking Back from Beulah in 1902.
  • Demons and Tongues (1910 )
  • The Harp of Gold (1911 ) with Arthur Kent White
  • Alma White: My Trip to the Orient. Pillar of Fire, 1911. (1911 )
  • The New Testament Church (1911-1912) in two volumes
  • Truth Stranger Than Fiction ( 1913)
  • The Titanic Tragedy: God Speaking to Nations (1913 )
  • Alma White: Why I Do Not Eat Meat. The Pentecostal Union, 1915, ISBN 0-7905-6913-2. (1915 )
  • Alma White: Restoration of Israel. The Pentecostal Union, 1917. (1917 )
  • The Story of My Life (1919-1930) in five volumes
  • Alma White: Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy. The Good Citizen, 1925, ISBN 1-4286-1075-8.
  • Alma White: Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty. The Good Citizen, 1926, ISBN 1-4254-9000- X.
  • Alma White: Musings of the Past. Pillar of Fire, 1927. (1927 )
  • Alma White: Heroes of the Fiery Cross. The Good Citizen, 1928.
  • Musings of the Past (1927 )
  • The Voice of Nature ( 1927)
  • Hymns and Poems (1931 )
  • Short Sermons (1932 )
  • Alma White: With God in the Yellowstone. Pillar of Fire, 1933. (1933 )
  • Demons and Tongues (1936 )
  • The Sword of the Spirit (1937 )
  • Alma White: Guardians of Liberty. Pillar of Fire Church, 1943.