Anaklasis is an avant-garde orchestral work for strings and percussion groups by Krzysztof Penderecki. It was composed in the years 1959 to 1960 and premiered on October 16, 1960 at the Donaueschingen Music Festival by the orchestra of the Southwest Orchestra under the direction of Hans Rosbaud. The work was very successful, often played and made the composer of a famous personality of the new music.
The name " Anaklasis " means light refraction, but was used in ancient Greek poetry for the phenomenon in which the long and short could be reversed by Choriamben.
For Anaklasis Penderecki chose one consisting of 42 musicians, string ensemble, which is divided into twenty violins, eight violas, eight cellos and six double basses. The area served by six players percussion section consists of a triangle, a gong, six pools, a tam-tam, four bells, two bongos, three toms, two congas, three wood blocks, chimes, a xylorimba and a vibraphone. Additionally, there are a harp, celesta and piano occupied, the pianist must also record on claves.
The work can be classified into the realm of sound mass composition. In addition, efforts are Penderecki for new ways to play the instruments in the foreground, which become especially noticeable in the strings: So the composer calls the game between the bridge and tailpiece or writes the instructions col legno, flautando and sul ponticello ago. In addition, pieces of wood are thrown on the piano strings; the conclusion of the work is a plucked piano chord.
Among the essential elements of the play clusters of various kinds, quarter-tone vibration, different tremolos, the game found in extreme situations, the juxtaposition of high and low groups of notes, tempo fluctuations which the diversely designed using the dynamic and diverse glissandi. Also of importance is the tripartite division of the work: Part A will be carried by the strings, so is practically the thesis, whereas Part B is played by the percussion section and thus forms an antithesis. In Part C, both groups play together, the contrast was to some extent for the synthesis. Between the parts are each smooth transitions.
The recommended screening period is nine minutes. However, there are also recordings with significantly shorter length.