Apabhraṃśa

Apabhramsha (Sanskrit अपभ्रंश Apabhramsa " tainted language" ) is an umbrella term for those Indo-Aryan languages ​​, which are in their linguistic history development between the Prakrits and neuindoarischen languages. They were talked about in the second half of the 1st millennium.

The Apabhramsha - languages ​​are linguistically a transitional form between the central and neuindoarischen languages ​​; they do have the old inflectional system almost completely lost and has already begun to emerge new analytical expression for grammatical relations. The most important Apabhramsha language is spoken in Gujarat Nagara Apabhramsha. As a literary language, there was widespread but throughout India and partly reflected local dialect peculiarities resist. The grammarian Hemacandra described in the 11th - 12th century, the Apabhramsha forms of Gujarat and Rajasthan.

The main Apabhramsha languages ​​are:

  • Nagara - Apabhramsha ( in Gujarat)
  • Saurasena - Apabhramsha ( precursor of the modern Hindi )
  • Takka and Upanagara - Apabhramsha ( precursor of the modern Punjabi )
  • Avantya - Apabhramsha ( precursor of the modern Rajasthani )
  • Gaurjara - Apabhramsha ( precursor of the modern Gujarati )
  • Ardhamagadha - Apabhramsha ( precursor of the modern Osthindi )
  • Magadha Apabhramsha ( precursor of the modern Bihari )
  • Prachya or Gauda - Apabhramsha ( precursor of the modern Bengali and Asamiya )
  • Audra or Autkala - Apabhramsha ( precursor of the modern Oriya )
  • Viadarbha or Dakshinatya - Apabhramsha ( precursor of the modern Marathi )
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