The Athens Metro (Greek Attiko Metro Αττικό Μετρό and Ilektrikós ηλεκτρικός for line 1) exists partly since 1869 but we can speak of a subway only since the electrification in 1904. By 2000, she had only one line. In 2000, two more lines were opened, also in view of the Olympic Games and the associated increase in traffic.
Since the opening of the second and third line as well as the complete renovation of the first line of the Athens Metro is one of the more modern systems of Europe. A special feature of the central stations with antique artefacts are designed museum similar to that provided further -away situated with works of art of contemporary Greek artists. The "new" Metro is used in Athens as a cultural space that hosts art exhibitions and various other events regularly in the.
- 3.1 Architecture and Art at the stations
- 3.2 appearance
- 3.3 Safety and cleanliness
- 5.2 Siemens / MAN ( 1951-1997 )
- 5.3 LEW Hennigsdorf Type G -II ( 1982-85; 1985 to the present )
- 5.4 MAN / LEW (1984 to present)
- 5.5 Hellenic Shipyards / Siemens (1994 to present)
- 5.6 Secheron type D (2004 to present)
The power of the Athens Metro is a total of about 55 kilometers long and has 51 stations. Trains run from 5:00 am bis 0:30 clock ( line 1) and from 5:30 to 24 clock (lines 2 and 3, opened in 2004 ). In the rush hour is on all three lines a three -minute intervals, during the low traffic time every five minutes drive trains in the off-peak time every ten minutes.
The important link of the Athens city center, the International Airport Athens Eleftherios Venizelos over the line 3 was interrupted for six months since February 14, 2009. Reason was the completion of the station Agia Paraskevi, which was skipped because of residents protest the construction of the track. Meanwhile, it is again possible to achieve with this line in 30 -minute intervals from the airport.
Already in 1869 the first part of today's Metro Line 1 was opened in the Greek capital Athens that connected the first railroad in the country Athens ( railway station on the station today Thisio ) to the port of Piraeus. The track was 12 km long, single track and was navigated by steam locomotives. Involved in planning was the Bavarian engineer Nicolaus zinc. By 1895 the line was extended to Omonia ( in the meantime, the terminus was today Monastiraki station ). There were plans to expand in 1892 before the train by a further distance to the mine Laurion ( at the southern tip of Attica, routing via Therikos, Keratia, Markopulo, Koropi, Liopesi and Chalandri ). Although it was not possible to transport goods also to an appreciable extent, so were 1900, 1.5333 million drachmas revenue and expenditure 614 147.
From 1901 to 1904, the line was double-tracked and electrified with swept from above circuit track. The regular railway traffic was shifted to a new track so that this route since only serves to transport. Fritz Steiner (1873-1955), an engineer whose parents had emigrated from Switzerland in 1905 was appointed as a director in 1925, a master plan for the Athens Metro has been developed. The early 1930s was the tunnel under the city center with the construction of the Omonia and Victoria as well as the connection to the north, to Kifissia leading suburban railway. Siemens provided for this 1949/50, new electrical equipment By 1957, the route of today's Line 1 to 26 km and 23 stations has been completed.
Further intermediate stations were built in the 1980s (eg Irini at the Olympic Stadium ). The line 1 is referred to as Ilektrikós ( Electrical ) and is independent of the new subway operating company represents ( ΗΣΑΠ - Electric Railways Athens - Piraeus). Since then, there have been numerous plans to build more subway lines until the Athens city government was committing himself to the construction of two additional lines.
Construction of lines 2 and 3
The tender for the construction of two new lines, the consortium won the 1991 Olympiako Metro, were involved in the total of 22 German, French and Greek companies. The delivery included electrical and mechanical equipment, vehicles, delivery and installation, and had a contract volume of 2 billion ECU. 1992 construction began.
In 1997, the tunnel route between stops Syntagma and Panepistimiou (line 2) was built in 24 meters depth, the designers came unexpectedly to a five -meter cavity. Because of fears, by a further construction could collapse the large Panepistimiou Street and the tunnel, the construction was interrupted for months, until the hole was refilled. Line 2 was then taken late on 28 January 2000 between the stations Sepolia and Syntagma into operation. Line 3 was opened in the same year between National Defence and Syntagma. By 2004, numerous other stations were put into operation because of the Olympics.
Presentation of a tunnel boring machine
Tunnel boring machine in use
Exploratory tunnel cross section
Exploratory tunnel longitudinal section and propulsion
Excavation of the station at Syntagma Square, around 1992
Station at Syntagma Square, plane of line 2
Visualization of a standardized station on the example " Monastiraki "
Microtunnel at Monastiraki station
Transition from a standard station, in the tunnel
Flooding with antique pottery
Architecture and art at the stations
At the start of the route of today's Line 1 in 1869, the Athens Metro was a pure electric train, which was also used for the transport of goods. The gradual development into a fully fledged subway happened in 1904, the previous task was a parallel track of the OSE. Not only in the technical equipment, but also in the design of the stations oriented themselves at first at the Berlin U -Bahn. This similarity is to be seen today especially at the stations " Omonia " and "Victoria", which were restored in 2003 and be next to " Piraeus " and " Monastiraki " historical monument. A curiosity is the station " Thissio " represents: the reception building ( from the time when the track was at ground level ) is transverse to the low-lying platform, a similar situation exists at the station " Monastiraki ". The reason is that it is the original terminal stations of Piräusbahn ( still visible on the prestigious design of the facade of the station " Monastiraki "). The stations of the lines 2 and 3 are designed largely uniform, are of interest here, however, the numerous works of art, most of which are on display in the mezzanine level or at the entrance and include almost all well-known Greek artists. A highlight is the light well ( design: Giorgos Zonglopoulos ), which is located on the 3rd level of the Syntagma station. Historic finds are on display at the respective stations, most of the station Syntagma and Acropolis. With the basic rehabilitation of the line 1 (2003/2004), all stations were rebuilt, each of which was supervised by another architectural firm. Above ground is on the station Katehaki an impressive pedestrian bridge, which was the first work of the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava in Greece. Finally, there is the small Museum of the History of Line 1 at the station " Piraeus " with numerous historical exhibits (including a half old Siemens - Halske - car) mentioned.
Both operators and the Proastiakos Railway was a single, very functional visual appearance in all stations as well as in terms of passenger information. Each line is assigned a color, which is used on the respective platform. The stations on line 1 and the Proastiakos are equipped with furniture of the company Eger, the color scheme is adapted to the architectural whole. Attiko Metro had already in 1997 an Internet presence, then won an European Design Award.
Safety and Cleanliness
Eating and drinking and smoking are not allowed. Compliance with the House Rules will be monitored through a comprehensive video surveillance and staff at each station. Failure to comply with a repeated warning in the form of a standardized announcement with the corresponding point of the house rules, with further non-compliance, shown by the security personnel and speaks in extreme cases, a ban from. In demonstrations nearby metro stations to be closed.
Construction and planning
Line 3 is currently under construction on the extension Egaleo - be extended Chaidari about Korydallos, Nicaea, the Piräuser port to the Municipal Theater of Piraeus. The tender was published in June 2006. By February 2009, six joint ventures have applied for the construction contract. The first, 1.4 km long section to the station Agia Marina was put into operation on 14 December 2013.
Also already decided is a fourth line (orange), which will result in a horseshoe shape from the Alsos Veiikou through the city center on the northerly station Katechaki up to Marousi station of Line 1. You should at a length of about 21 km include 20 stations and cost about 2.1 billion euros.
There are considerations to extend the metro system to a total of eight lines with more then 220 km and 200 stations.
The first subway cars were supplied by Siemens on the opening operation. A planned for 1944 additional delivery did not come into existence because of the war. After all the trains were retired by 1983, a train is kept in working order today; the discarded vehicles were given away for use as local hangouts.
Siemens / MAN ( 1951-1997 )
After repair of war damage 1951/52, the first twelve two-piece railcar companies Siemens and MAN were delivered 1958/59 was followed by a subsequent delivery of a further 16 identical vehicles. The last nine Siemens supplied / MAN in the years 1968 / 69th
LEW Hennigsdorf Type G -II ( 1982-85; 1985 to the present )
As the maintenance costs for the old subway cars had become very big in the 1980s, had to find a solution quickly. Because of the payment in foreign currency, the GDR offered to short-term remedy: The funding for the East Berlin subway cars of LEW Hennigsdorf type GI were rebuilt as type G-II and loaned to Athens. The modification consisted mainly of an increase in car bodies to adapt to the platform level, the cultivation of lateral profile compensation boards and in the adaptation of train control and pantographs. These were not delivered until 1985. More cars were apparently borrowed. The rented cars were dismantled in Berlin again in GI, used until 1996 and sold to North Korea in 1997. The remaining cars were used in Athens in the 1990s, yet in the rush hour.
MAN / LEW (1984 to present)
Despite the vulnerability of the low cost of the LEW trains made an order attractive. They opted for a compromise: A new custom made series were developed by MAN in Nuremberg and designed from there came also a part of the technical equipment. The cars were built at LEW Hennig village in the GDR in 1983/ 1984.
Hellenic Shipyards / Siemens (1994 to present)
Designed for Athens series proved to be reliable, so you again preferred this type in the new acquisition. It acquired the license from MAN, trains in Hellenic Shipyards ( at that time a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp ) to have finished in Greece (Series A01 ). Also a tender Attiko Metro, the operator of the lines 2 and 3, the consortium won Hellenic Shipyards and Siemens.
Secheron type D (2004 to present)
The final call for more subway cars which 3 were necessary to the airport with the extension of the line, won the South Korean manufacturer Rotem. 14 trains (series D201 ) are designed for 750 volts, while the other seven (Series D251 ) were also fitted for catenary operation with 25 kV / 50 Hz.
Single tickets can be purchased from the ticket machines for € 1.40 and are valid for 90 minutes, including switching to another line. If one uses only the line 1 (green line) eligible for a reduced ticket for 70 cents used. To use the metro in combination with the section Doukissis Plakentias - Airport the fare is valid from six euros, as this route is operated in cooperation with the state railway OSE
Current composite Ticket
Ticket Vending Machine
Canceling machine at a station