As bergamot ( botanically correct Citrus × limon, Syn Citrus bergamia ) refers to a group of species of the genus citrus plants (Citrus ), which may have arisen as a hybrid of citron (Citrus medica ) and bitter orange (Citrus × aurantium ). The fruit is not used as a fruit, but grown mainly because the included perfume.
The plant reaches a height of about four meters and has irregular Astwuchs, where the branches are rarely occupied by thorns. In contrast to the lemon shoots and leaves are not colored reddish when they emerge. The evergreen leaves are dark green, oblong and smooth. In most cases, the petiole is winged striking.
The flowering time is focused on a specific period in the spring, also bears fruit, the Bergamot not spread over the entire year. The flowers are pure white. The fruit is round to slightly pear-shaped, often slightly ribbed and at the end with a small protuberance at which the stylus often remains liable up to the ripening time. It has a weight of 100 to 200 grams and is in the harvest - which will be held late November to March - lemon yellow. Some selections but also provide heavier fruits. The fruits have a diameter of five to seven centimeters. The outer shell is brushed smooth to slightly, it adheres firmly to the fruit. The greenish pulp is divided into numerous segments, it has a very acidic and slightly bitter taste. The fruits are only a few, sometimes no seeds, which usually contain only one embryo with white or light green cotyledons.
The bergamot is grown only along a narrow, about one hundred kilometers long coastal strip between the Ionian and the Tyrrhenian Sea in Calabria, Villa San Giovanni to Gioiosa Ionica ( " toe" of Italy ). Individual plants can be planted for ornamental purposes in all always warm areas of the world.
The main components of bergamot oil are terpenes such as linalyl acetate, linalool, bergapten, dihydrocumin, nerol, limonene, bergaptol, limettin and bergamottin.
Use as a perfume raw material
According to Gildemeister and Hoffmann " The ethereal oils " bergamot oil was introduced in the period 1672-1708. In the books of the Eau de Cologne Johann Maria Farina and perfumery factory opposite the Jülich - place in Cologne (abbreviated to " Farina opposite " ), there are purchases of bergamot from 1714.
Since its mention in 1750, as the bergamot was planted by a certain Nicolo Parisi, the oil of Bergamot is an essential raw material for the perfume industry and, in particular the Eau de Cologne its characteristic odor. The essential bergamot oil is pressed from the peel of small, yellow to orange fruit of the bergamot tree. Previously, the squeezing was concerned with the hand, then with self-made pressing devices from wood, but now it happens automatically. To win one liter of oil, 200 kg fruit must be pressed.
The harvest is almost exclusively used for obtaining the so-called essence, which contains over 350 different flavors, surpassing many other natural fragrances of complexity. The refreshing aroma invigorates the body and mind.
The fragrance is clear, fresh, lively, lively and of great originality. It is included in practically all perfumes as a top note and is mainly used in colognes and fresh, citrusy eau de toilettes.
Use as food
Bergamot oil is used to flavor Earl Grey tea and Lady Grey tea; also it is contained in a special type of Turkish Akide sweets and candies from Nancy in French; In addition, it is used for flavoring of pipe and snuff.
As a specialty applies jam from bergamot fruits: it is sour in taste and slightly bitter and ethereal with a distinctive flavor.
From the production remains of bergamot harvest fruit juice and schnapps are generally produced in a second recovery gear.
The obtained from the skins of bergamot essential oil of bergamot is diluted with a much larger amount of olive oil and then used as a tanning accelerator. The information contained in bergamot Furocumarine substances act in combination with sunlight but also toxic, therefore not recommended for this type of application to prevent damage to the skin.
There is an ancient craft in Calabria, are processed as a bag of snuff in the dried bergamot fruit bodies.
In addition, the bergamot juice keeps for some time moving into the haute cuisine as a flavoring agent, comparable with lime juice.
Etymology and phylogeny
The Italian word motta bergamot designated a type of pear that has been imported from Turkey. The name is on the Ottoman-Turkish beg armudı (modern Turkish: bey armudu ) to decline, " Mr. pear" or " Prince pear" means the Italian name (the former Pergamon ) could also be influenced by the city name Bergama. It was only in the late 17th century, the name for the type of pear on this citrus fruit is transmitted. The name of the fruit is converted into Mortu baca in many Italian dialects, the verb bacare for calm and Mortu stands for the dead.
The scientific name was first erected by Risso and Poiteau who named this plant Citrus bergamia. Swingle speculated already on the relationship of bergamot to bitter orange: bergamot could be a mutation of the bitter orange or a hybrid with another, unknown kind were until recent genetic studies have shown that the bergamot is due to a cross between sour orange and citron. Thus it has the same parent species, such as the lemon, which poses a problem for the scientific naming: hybrids of the same parents should get the same name and the lemon in this case is the older. Correctly called the Bergamot Citrus × limon therefore, to distinguish it from the lemon can still the additional Citrus × limon bergamot group are used.