Binder (material)

Binders are substances through the solids with a fine degree of dispersion ( eg, powder ) to each other and are bonded to a backing. Binders are usually added in liquid form to be bound fillers. Both substances are thoroughly mixed so that they are evenly distributed and all the particles of the filler are uniformly wetted with the binder. By type of binder, the filler new processing and material properties can be imparted.

High binder content in a mixture of material, a ceramic or a colorant called fat, lean low proportion (high proportion of aggregates ). Substances with which solid substances are only partially joined together, are no binders, but adhesives.

Areas of application


In the manufacture of color pigments and binders are mixed together. The binder should there be color neutral and do not affect the color effect of the pigment. The type of binder is determined by the staining technique, the painting surface and the desired properties of color (drying, gloss, opacity ).

As color binders are commonly used:

  • Gum arabic (water soluble) in the watercolor painting
  • Emulsions in Tempera Painting, with the addition of mastic or dammar.
  • Burnt lime, cement and potassium silicate building and the mural
  • Plastic dispersions in acrylic painting and industrial paints and coatings
  • Vegetable oils in oil painting
  • Resins in oil painting as well as in industrial paints and coatings
  • Zelluloseleim ( paste ) in distemper
  • Wax in encaustic
  • Plant oils ( linseed oil )
  • Alkyd resins for printing inks and varnishes
  • Casein in wall and panel painting
  • Epoxy resins in a wide range of applications
  • Polyurethanes in a wide range of applications
  • Silicone resin ( emulsion ) in paints

Building materials

A binder in building materials are mineral materials which achieve a high strength by crystallization, and organic materials (such as synthetic resin dispersions and two -component reactive resins ), which harden by polymerization. Also binders based on renewable raw materials such as starch and sugar are, for example, used in gypsum in mineral fiber boards or as wallpaper paste.

In the construction industry, a distinction between hydraulic binders, which harden both in air and under water ( eg cement, mixed binders, hydraulic lime ( Trass ), plaster and masonry cement on Zement-/Acryl-Basis ), and non-hydraulic binders (also air binder) that cure only at the air (eg Luftkalke, gypsum, magnesia, clay). Not Hydraulic binders are not water resistant in the hardened state.

Commonly used binders in construction materials are:

  • Gypsum, anhydrite ( wallboards, plaster, screed )
  • Quicklime, especially fat lime (mortar, plaster, paint )
  • Clay ( loam loam, coarse and fine ceramic)
  • Cement (mortar, concrete, screed)
  • Bitumen ( roof sealing, road )
  • Dispersion paints ( latex paint, emulsion plasters )


In two-component adhesives in the broad sense in all of the two-phase polymer, the binder is a substance to serve as a catalyst for the polymerization.

Hard metals

In hard metals, which are sintered, cobalt or nickel can be used as less toxic binder.


In materials for ceramics or from the actual ceramic component derived by thermal sintering ( " jaws " at high temperature), or other chemical processes (such as pyrolysis of polymers) is solidified as a binder. Due to the abnormally high shrinkage during firing too rich a starting material mixture is extremely unfavorable. Traditional pottery and ceramics Hafner be tempered with sand or fireclay ( temper ).

Wood-based materials

Binder used in the manufacture of wood-based materials, such as chipboard or MDF panels, gluing the wood particles (ground wood chips or wood fibers). Quantitatively, the amino resins and PMDI are the most important. Binders from renewable resources are indeed in development, playing in the wood products industry but practically no role


Binder make the paper writable, because it is less absorbent and less hygroscopic. The water repellency of the fiber is known in the papermaking as sizing. Sizing agents are often chemically modified ( saponified ) tree resins in combination with potash alum or aluminum sulfate or polymers based on acrylates and polyurethanes. Starches and sugars are used in the paper industry for increasing the tear resistance and better printability of paper and paperboard, proteins from leguminous plants for increasing the mechanical strength and better adhesion of water-soluble inks.


Binder in foods have to give the task of food the desired consistency. Here are proteins and carbohydrates for use. You must be adapted to the taste or flavor to neutral binding dining.

The usual in the kitchen binders are:

  • Agar
  • Yolk
  • Gelatin
  • Roux
  • Flour Butter
  • Pectin
  • Arrowroot
  • Sago
  • Strength

In the food industry using binder ( thickeners, thickening agents )

  • Alginic acid (E 400)
  • Sodium alginate ( E401 )
  • Potassium ( E 402 )
  • Agar- agar (E 406)
  • Carrageenan (E 407)
  • Locust bean gum ( E 410 )
  • Guar gum (E 412)
  • Tragacanth ( E 413 )
  • Gum arabic (E 414)
  • Xanthan ( E 415 )
  • Karaya (E 416)
  • Tara gum ( E 417 )
  • Gellan ( E 418 )
  • Pectin ( E440 )
  • Cellulose ( E460)
  • Cellulose (group: Methyl cellulose (E 461 )
  • Ethyl cellulose (E 462)
  • Hydroxypropyl cellulose ( E 463 )
  • Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose ( E464)
  • Methylethylcellulose (E 465 )
  • Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose ( E 466 ) )
  • Oxidized starch (E 1404)
  • Mono starch phosphate (E 1410)
  • Starch phosphate (E 1412 )
  • Phosphated starch phosphate (E 1413 )
  • Acetylated starch phosphate (E 1414)
  • Acetylated starch (E 1420 )
  • Acetylated distarch adipate (E 1422 )
  • Hydroxypropyl starch (E 1440)
  • Hydroxypropyl (E 1442 )
  • Starch ( E 1450 )
  • Acetylated oxidised starch (E 1451 ) )