A botanical garden is a parent often on the origin of species of plants planting of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants. Botanical gardens are often under the management of a university or college, as such collections of plant species can be used as a basis for scientific work.
A limited on trees and shrubs botanical garden called Arboretum. An arboretum may also be part of a botanical garden. Other typical ingredients are alpine garden and tropical greenhouses.
Since 1492 the Arboretum of Trsteno near Dubrovnik is detected. Early botanical gardens were founded in 1544 in Pisa, Italy by Luca Ghini, 1545 in Padua by Johannes Baptista Montanus and in Florence ( 1545 ) and Bologna ( 1568).
In Germany botanical gardens were created in Leipzig ( 1580), Jena ( 1586), Heidelberg ( 1593), Giessen ( 1609) and Freiburg (1620 ), still mostly integrated into the medical school as a Hortus Medicus. The Botanical Garden Kiel was the first German botanical garden in the strict sense. It was established in 1669 by Johann Daniel Major at the University of Kiel. The first botanical garden in Portugal in 1772 set up by the Earl of Pombal at the University of Coimbra.
Botanical gardens serve the preservation of biodiversity. So leads a botanical garden usually an index Seminum, indicating which plant seeds occur in the garden. In addition, botanical gardens contain illustrative material for the - and informal - study of botany. Finally, botanical gardens recreation serve, as they are at least partially created park-like. So they usually have natural or artificial waters and seating and are open to the public.
The largest botanical gardens in the world are
- Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis, United States
- Royal Botanic Gardens ( Kew ) in London, United Kingdom
- Botanical Garden Berlin, Germany
- Botanical Garden Romberg Park in Dortmund, Germany
Botanical gardens are located on all continents, except Antarctica.