Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association

The Catholic Patriotic Association (KPV; Chinese中国 天主教 爱国 会, Pinyin Zhōngguó tiānzhǔjiào Aiguo HUI ) is the officially recognized by the communist government, but not of the Roman Catholic Church Catholic Community on the territory of the People 's Republic of China ( with the exception of the special administrative regions Hong Kong and Macau). It is one of claims to more than five million members. Critics of the CPV see in these established by the Chinese rulers church the attempt of the state control over Catholicism in China.

Establishment and organization

The KPV was founded in 1957 under pressure from the Communist government in order to prevent contact of Chinese Catholics with the Vatican. Chinese Catholics, it is only allowed in accordance with these Official Association to practice their faith. The state controls significantly the lives of KPV and reserves the right to appoint bishops. The Vatican has so far not officially recognized the organization of this Church, she is thus outside of communion with the Holy See and can be viewed in this sense as schismatic. Still in its first year excommunicated by Pope Pius XII. the founding bishops of the CPV.

Anthony Liu Bainian is honorary president of the Patriotic Association.

Roman Catholic Church in China

The unofficial Roman Catholic Church in the People 's Republic of China, which recognizes the primacy of the Roman Pontiff over the Catholics of China, continues to exist as an underground church. Its members, whose number is estimated at 12 million, are exposed to state prosecutions. Bishops and priests are regularly detained and transferred to government re-education camps, where since 1949, but especially since 1957, many of them died or were by the Roman Catholic understanding of martyrs. The Chinese Underground Church looked in the past membership in the CPV often as betrayal of the faith, which led to tensions between the unofficial underground church and the state-approved Catholic Church in China. There are now between these two Catholic communities but considerable overlap. It is thought that around 80 percent of the bishops of the KPV already have contacts with the Holy See and are also recognized by Rome. In Shanghai and Sichuan Province for the first time each bishop was consecrated with permission from both Rome and Beijing.


In mainland ( excluding Hong Kong and Macau), there are an estimated four million members of the state-organized KPV and twelve million members of the "authentic" underground church. Based on the principle one country, two systems, the Roman Catholic Church in the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau can be officially active and there is no state persecution exposed.

The existence of the KPV is one of the reasons why the Holy See continues to regard the government of Taiwan as the representative of China and maintains full diplomatic relations with it.

Positions of the KPV

The KPV supported due to the state guidelines and in contrast to the Roman Catholic position that artificial contraception (eg condoms and pill) and they may hold any criticism of the government permitted by the Communists abortion. The part of the Catholic doctrines, rules and discipline, which were formulated after 1949 ( the year of the Communist seizure of power ) have so far been rejected by her, about the dogma of the Assumption in 1950. Too, the reforms of the Second Vatican Council rejects the KPV, although its provisions could generally count on the acceptance of communist governments around the world. Also by the authorities and priests of the Socialist Republics of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and the other countries of the world communist these were accepted.

Nevertheless, it was the Catholic worship in China's state church, completely according to the commandment not to accept all instructions from after 1949, to celebrate twenty years ago still after Tridentinischem rite. Meanwhile, however, may in the services of the KPV also sometimes be prayed for the Pope in Rome, the decisions of the Second Vatican Council, especially the liturgical reform, are also implemented more and more, and Chinese is - liturgical, now - at the insistence of the Communist authorities become language. Several bishops appointed by the State of KPV were subsequently confirmed by the Vatican.

Episcopal ordinations in May 2006

Since 2000, no more bishops were ordained without the consent of the Vatican by the KPV. Even the Vatican a strong interest has been shown that possibly as early as 2008 to resume broken diplomatic relations since 1951. However, it was early May 2006 to a renewed rift between the CPV and the Vatican. Within a week, the two bishops Ma Yinglin and Liu Xinhong, without waiting for prior approval of the Vatican, consecrated as bishops. The latter asked, due to the reservations of the Vatican against him in February, nor a shift of the episcopal ordination. On May 3, he agreed then, a presumably under pressure from the Communist Party, but in his consecration.

This led to a sharp protest of the recently appointed a Cardinal Bishop Joseph Zen of Hong Kong and by Pope Benedict XVI. Shortly after the church right below were the two new bishops, and they declared excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church for latae sententiae consecrating bishops as the Vatican press spokesman Joaquin Navarro -Valls.

Following these ordinations, the KPV refused to take advantage of this practice is not authorized papal consecrations distance, and led 14 May 2006 Zhan Silu in his office as Bishop of the Diocese Mindong one. He was ordained in the year 2000, without the approval of the bishop. Zhan Silu had informed the Vatican of his consecration, but received no reply to his letter. A spokesman for the KPV told her conduct was lawful because all consecrated bishops " were democratically elected qualified priests " of. Likewise, should the Vatican meet Chinese conditions ( recognition of "one- China" policy and non-interference in internal affairs ) before the establishment of diplomatic relations.