Cluny ( historically also Cluni, Cluny, Kluny and the like. ) Is a small town in the French department of Saône -et -Loire in the Burgundy region. It has 4689 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2011), on the river Grosne. Nearest large city ( 30 km southeast ) is Mâcon.

Cluny was mainly known through the destroyed after the French Revolution medieval abbey of Cluny.


At The sights are next to the abbey and the medieval townscape including the national horse stud ( Haras National) to visit the Hôtel- Dieu and the cheese tower. In the vicinity of Cluny ( the Clunisois ) there are castles, caves, Romanesque churches, wine roads and museums.


Founded 910 Benedictine monastery ( Abbey of Cluny ) was at the beginning of the 10th century starting point and focus of the Cluniac reform. The Abbey owes its far-reaching influence of the strict observation of Benedictine monastic rules of more than 1,000 monasteries (over 20,000 monks ). From 927-1157 Cluny was ruled by five influential abbots, who were also friends and advisers of emperors, kings, princes and popes. It was based the unique status of the abbey, which was directly subordinate to the Pope. Many other monasteries, the abbots of Cluny asked for advice and joined him. These monasteries had no abbot, but a prior, which was determined by the abbot of Cluny. Belonging to Cluny brought privileges and esteem with it ( security against encroachments of the bishops and secular lords, less exposure to the feudal system ).

The founder of Cluny was it important to secure his monastic foundation against secular interference, which had become effective in so many other monasteries and had watered down the original Christian spirit. In the foundation charter was therefore the exemption, defined the legal status of the new monastery: It should be solely responsible to the immediate protection of the Pope.

Its membership peaked Cluny at the beginning of the 12th century with about 400 monks. There were also later in 1200 there were approximately 1,500 offices in Italy, Spain, England, Germany, Poland and the Holy Land. The most popular are La Charité -sur -Loire, Vézelay, Saint- Martial in Limoges, Moissac and St- Martin-des -Champs in Paris. In England Lewes was the main monastery in Switzerland Romainmôtier and Payerne, in Germany Hirsau was the center.

The law firm of Cluny was since the 11th century one of the most famous management institutions of the West. The reform popes of the 11th and 12th centuries brought from Cluny their administrative officers and created with their help in Rome the Apostolic Chamber. From here came the reform of the Benedictine order, and - during the 11th century - the militant policy of the church.

The second abbot of Cluny, St Odo ( 879-942 ), took advantage of the special status of the legal department, by creating something like a monk empire. He united under his official powers several monasteries and it created a very militant Catholicism. With Pope Urban II, who in 1095 proclaimed the First Crusade, at least one in this regard emerged particularly outstanding Pope of the abbey. Gregory VII, because of his reforms and his confrontation with the monarchy in the Investiture Controversy of the most important medieval popes ever, is no longer seen by modern research as a monk of the Abbey of Cluny. The monastery became the principal carrier of the crusade idea to the east and the Rekonquista in Spain.

Between 1928 and 1950, the Cluniac complex was designed by the art historian Kenneth John Conant excavated and by means of other, still existing, Burgundian churches, Paray -le- Monial, reconstructed. However, his drawing sophisticated representations are historically considered controversial because its methodology was inadequate. Thus, Conant was assumed that further, the Cluniac Order belonging to churches were architecturally modeled after the Church of Cluny and Cluny reconstructed afterwards. Also, to help level of his historical prints and traditional descriptions do not provide a sufficient basis.

Illumination of the Abbey of the Gala Arts et Metiers

The Tour Fabry, a watchtower on the north wall of the monastery

The bell tower ( left) and the Clock Tower (right)

Sons and daughters of the town

  • Pierre Paul Prud'hon ( born April 4, 1758 in Cluny, † February 14, 1823 in Paris ), painter of classicism