Troyon worked at a young age as a porcelain painter at the famous manufactory of his native city, where his father worked. At 21, he began to travel about as a landscape painter. He became a pupil of Camille Roque plan, which introduced him to Théodore Rousseau, Jules Dupré, and other painters of the Barbizon School.
1846 saw Troyon in The Hague, the painting Young Bull by Paul Potter, which left a lasting impression on him. In his studies of this image, the landscapes of Aelbert Cuyp and the masterpieces of Rembrandt Troyon developed a new style and a mastery in the depiction of animals, with whom he has seen international success soon. He received numerous awards, and Napoleon III. was one of his admirers.
His best works were created 1850-1864. Constant Troyon, who never married, died in 1865 in Paris, after a period of mental derangement. His mother, who survived him, donated the Troyon prize for animal representations of the École des Beaux -Arts. Among the students Troyon counts Emile van Marcke. His works were also known by graphic reproductions and influenced German animal painters such as Anton Braith and Christian Mali.