Constructivist architecture

Constructivism is a style of modern architecture, which was especially prevalent in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s in the context of constructivist art in urban development.


Similar to other art forms of constructivism, where the design elements are typically composed of simple, geometrically arranged basic elements, also the buildings of the constructivism of simple geometric shapes are embossed, which unlike traditional architectural styles, not the aesthetic or artistic, but the functional component is in the foreground. By stressed renunciation of luxury elements in favor of objectivity and functional aesthetics constructivist architect wanted to bring the social upheaval in Russia in the 1920s according to the "democratization " of society in the architecture of primarily public buildings expressed.

As the first project to build the early Soviet constructivism applies in 1923 presented by the brothers Alexander, Leonid and Viktor Vesnin (but not realized ) Design the so-called working palace in Moscow. In 1924, the Vesnin brothers and several other architects, who were also committed to the new functionality included, to form an association called Association of modern architects (Russian Объединение современных архитекторов ) together. Whose members then counted among other Kasimir Malevich, as a painter one of the best known representatives of constructivist art, the style of Suprematism also influenced architectural designs of the constructivists. Well-known architects of the constructivism of the 1920s were, among others, Konstantin Melnikov, Moissei Ginsburg, Noi Trozki and Boris Iofan.

Characteristic of Structures of constructivism was also the fact that it is in many of them at that time these were principally novel elements of urban planning, which were primarily designed to the specifics of the former everyday life back. As typical examples of this are so-called workers' clubs, cultural centers or factory kitchens mentioned, which should meet all of the new, post-revolutionary idea of ​​the public life of the working class. In addition to public buildings, the Constructivists erected in many cities residential buildings, of which the one for the new elite class ( like the house later notorious become on the Embankment in Moscow) were determined, the other as so-called community - houses for the workers and laborers.

The new architectural forms practiced in the early Soviet period also influence the design of everyday objects such as furniture, fitting or harness, but also on the design of the book and poster printing.

Were criticized From the mid- 1930s, as new trends in art in the light of Stalinism increasingly freethinking and " bourgeois" and partly also forbidden constructivism important in urban essentially the Socialist Classicism, in the back ostentatious elements from the pre-revolutionary architecture found their place.

Factory Kitchen in Fili, Moscow ( 1929)

Hotel Iset in Yekaterinburg (1930 )

Intourist- storey car park in Moscow, Melnikov (1933 )

Hall of Leningrad (1934 )