F. F. Bruce

Frederick Fyvie Bruce, known as FF Bruce ( born October 12, 1910 in Elgin, Scotland, † September 11, 1990 in Buxton, Derbyshire, England) was a Scottish evangelical theologian who by some authors as one of the most influential New Testament scholar in the UK theology of the 20th century is called.


Bruce was the son of a preacher of the Brethren movement and life active member of the open Plymouth Brethren, if he does not affirmed also the members of the teaching of the Brethren movement dispensationalism.

He studied in Aberdeen 1928-32 and 1932-34 in Cambridge Greek and Latin, then to 1935 in Vienna Indo-European philology; As a student he received numerous awards. Bruce mastered many languages ​​, including Scottish Gaelic his home, and was thirteen years ( 1945-58 ), editor of the journal Yorkshire Celtic Studies.

His academic career began as an assistant of Greek at the University of Edinburgh ( 1935-38 ) and Leeds ( 1938-47 ). In 1947, he was offered a new Department of Biblical History and Literature at the University of Sheffield to set up, which he chaired from 1955 as a professor, though - according to the legend also because - he had never studied formally theology. In 1959 he became professor of biblical studies and exegesis at the University of Manchester John Rylands. In this position he was responsible for more dissertations on biblical studies than any other professor of his generation. He is said to have a very great knowledge of the Bible; so tell students that it provides both the Hebrew and Greek text as well as several English translations of the Bible by heart, cited in lectures. In 1978 he became Professor Emeritus.

Bruce was one of the few theologians who were recognized by their peers as both Old Testament and New Testament as. He is one of two theologians who have projected both the " Society for Old Testament Studies" (1965 ) and the " Society for New Testament Studies" (1975).

From the late 1950s, traveled Bruce - apart from Europe - held lectures in North America, Australia and East Africa.


Bruce saw no contradiction in principle between the creeds of historic Christianity and modern biblical scholarship. He worked with Liberal and Conservative Christians, Jews and atheists. He put a strong emphasis on its independence, which is why he preferred the also working on a secular university on a denominational university.

In his personal character he was known as evangelicals. He was an enthusiastic supporter of the evangelical student movement InterVarsity and over 20 years ( 1956-78 ) advisory co-editor of Christianity Today.

Unlike the majority of evangelicals of his generation he was a staunch fighter for women's equality in the church service because of his interpretation of Paul's letters.


" Are the New Testament Documents Reliable? " ( German: "Are the New Testament documents reliable" ), Bruce's first book, was published in 1943 and became widespread. It has since been reprinted eight times, revised several times and translated into many languages. From the leading evangelical magazine Christianity Today, it is regarded as one of the fifty most important evangelical books.

Bruce's first major work in 1951 was a technical- scientific commentary on the Greek text of Acts, the more the historical and linguistic aspects emphasized than the theological. A second comment from 1954 was more devoted to theology and interpretation and less intended for scientists as for pastors and preachers. These two comments were the patterns for different series of evangelical Bible commentaries, which appeared during the next fifty years, including many of his former students.

Books (selection)

  • Are the New Testament Documents Reliable? Inter- Varsity Fellowship, London 1943, 21946, 31950, 41954, 51960 (from now on under the title The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable ), 61981, 72000, 82003 ISBN 0-8028-2219-3.
  • The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale Press, London 1951, 21952, 31990th
  • The Spreading Flame: The Rise and Progress of Christianity from Its First Beginnings to the Conversion of the English. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids (MI ) 1953, 21958, 31981st ISBN 0-8028-1805-6
  • Commentary on the Book of the Acts: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition, and Notes ( New International Commentary on the New Testament). Eerdmans, Grand Rapids ( MI) 1954, 21972, 31988th ISBN 0-8028-2182-0
  • Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Paternoster Press, London 1956, 21961, 31966th ISBN 0-85364-017-3
  • ( with EK Simpson :) Commentary on the Epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition and Notes ( New International Commentary on the New Testament). Eerdmans, Grand Rapids ( MI) in 1957.
  • The English Bible: A History of Translations. Lutterworth Press, London 1961, 21970, 31978 ( under the title History of the Bible in English, from the Earliest Versions). ISBN 0-19-520088-8
  • The Epistle to the Romans ( Tyndale New Testament Commentary ). Tyndale Press, London 1963. ISBN 0-8028-1405-0
  • The Epistle to the Hebrews ( New International Commentary on the New Testament). Eerdmans, Grand Rapids (MI ) 1964, 21990th ISBN 0-8028-2514-1
  • An Expanded Paraphrase of the Epistles of Paul. Paternoster Press, Exeter 1965. ISBN 0-88021-016-8
  • This Is That: The New Testament Development of Some Old Testament Themes. Paternoster Press, Exeter 1968. ISBN 0-8028-1729-7
  • The Epistles of John: Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Pickering & Inglis, London, 1970. ISBN 0-8028-1783-1
  • 1 and 2 Corinthians ( New Century Bible Commentary ). Oliphant, London 1971. ISBN 0-8028-1839-0
  • The Message of the New Testament. Paternoster Press, Exeter 1972. ISBN 0-8028-1525-1
  • The ' Secret' Gospel of Mark. . The Ethel M. Wood Lecture Delivered before the University of London on 11 February 1974 (PDF, 176 kB) Athlone Press, London 1974, ISBN 0-485-14318-6.
  • Jesus and Christian Origins outside the New Testament. Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1974. ISBN 0-8028-1575-8
  • Paul: Apostle of the Free Spirit. Paternoster Press, Exeter 1977. ISBN 1-84227-027-3
  • Men and Movements in the Primitive Church: Studies in Early Non- Pauline Christianity. Paternoster Press, Exeter 1979. ISBN 0-85364-705-4
  • Places They Knew: Jesus and Paul. Ark, London 1981. ISBN 0-8407-5281-4
  • The Epistle of Paul to the Galatians: A Commentary on the Greek Text ( New International Greek Testament Commentary ). Paternoster Press, Exeter 1982. ISBN 0-8028-2387-4
  • 1 & 2 Thessalonians (Word Biblical Commentary ). Word, Waco / London 1982. ISBN 0-8499-0244-4
  • The Hard Sayings of Jesus. Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1983. ISBN 0-87784-927-7
  • The Gospel of John. Pickering, Basingstoke 1983. ISBN 0-8028-0883-2
  • The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon and to the Ephesians ( New International Commentary on the New Testament). Eerdmans, Grand Rapids ( MI), 1984. ISBN 0-8028-2510-9
  • The Canon of Scripture. InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove ( IL) 1988. ISBN 0-8308-1258- X
  • Philippians ( New International Biblical Commentary ). Paternoster Press, Carlisle 1989. ISBN 0-943575-15- X

Articles (Selection )

  • "The Speeches in Acts: Thirty Years After. " (PDF, 160 kB) Add: Reconciliation and Hope. New Testament Essays on Atonement and Eschatology Presented to LL Morris on his 60th Birthday. Edited by Robert Banks. Paternoster Press, Carlisle 1974. Pp. 53-68.
  • ". The Background to the Son of Man Sayings " (PDF, 201 kB) In Christ The Lord. Studies in Christology presented to Donald Guthrie. Inter- Varsity Press, Leicester 1982. ISBN 0-85111-744-9. Pp. 50-70.
  • "The Curse of the Law. " (PDF, 67 kB) In: Paul and Paulinism. Essays in Honour of C. K. Barrett. Edited by M. D. Hooker and S. G. Wilson. SPCK, London. ISBN 0-281-03835- X. Pp. 27-36.
  • " Colossian problem. Part 1: Jews and Christians in the Lycus Valley " in: . Bibliotheca Sacra 141 (1984 ), pp. 3-13.
  • " Colossian problem. Part 2: The ' Christ Hymn ' of Colossians 1:15-20 " In: . Bibliotheca Sacra 141 (1984 ), pp. 99-112.
  • " Colossian problem. Part 3: The Colossian Heresy " In: . Bibliotheca Sacra 141 (1984 ), pp. 195-206.
  • " Colossian problem. Part 4: Christ as Conqueror and Reconciler " In: . Bibliotheca Sacra 141 (1984 ), pp. 291-301.
  • " Luke's Presentation of the Spirit in Acts. " In: Criswell Theological Review 5.1 (1990 ), pp. 15-29.