Bruce M. Metzger

Bruce Manning Metzger ( born February 9, 1914 in Middletown, Pennsylvania, † February 13, 2007 in Princeton ) was an American biblical scholar. He was a professor of New Testament language and literature of the Princeton Theological Seminary. Metzger was one of the leading experts on textual criticism of the New Testament, and has been involved in several Bible translations. He was one of the editors of Novum Testamentum Grace of Nestle and Aland.


Bruce Metzger ended the Lebanon Valley College with a Bachelor of Arts in 1935 and graduated in 1938 in Princeton Seminary with a Bachelor of Theology from. In 1939 he was ordained pastor of the Presbyterian Church. In 1942 he received his doctorate in classics at Princeton University. In 1938 he began teaching at Princeton Theological Seminary. He was there for 46 years to the Department of New Testament.

Bruce Metzger married Isobel Mackay Metzger, who supported him throughout his life in his work. Her father, John Mackay, was president of Princeton Seminary.


Bruce Metzger has published over eight decades, his first article appeared in 1938, his last book in 2006.

Metzger has published numerous comments on Bible translations and wrote many books. He was a collaborator on several new translations of the Bible, including the New Revised Standard Version and the Reader's Digest Bible. He was also one of the editors of the Greek New Testament of the United Bible Societies and the Nestle -Aland, the main text editions of the Greek New Testament in recent decades.

Metzger's comments often include criticism and comments that should explain to the reader the literary and historical background of the Bible. For his view that not so much the divine revelation played a role in the early church in the collection of the writings of the New Testament, but the fact that the texts of eyewitnesses of the time or their students had been written, he was by fundamentalist groups strongly criticized.


  • The fascinating world of the Bible of people and destinies, venues and events, 1995, ISBN 3-451-23975-2
  • The canon of the New Testament: Origin, Development, significance, 1993, ISBN 3-491-71104-5
  • The text of the New Testament: An Introduction to d neutestamentl. Textual criticism, carbon Hammer, 1966


  • The Text Of The New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, And Restoration (2005)
  • New Testament: Its Background, Growth and Content ( 2003)
  • The Oxford Essential Guide to Ideas and Issues of the Bible (2002)
  • The Oxford Guide to People & Places of the Bible (2001)
  • Greek New Testament (2000 with by B. Aland)
  • Breaking the Code: Understanding the Book of Revelation: Leader's Guide ( 1999)
  • Revelation 6-16 (Word Biblical Commentary 52b ) ( 1998)
  • Reminiscences of an Octogenarian (1997) ISBN 1565632648, Autobiography
  • The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance (1997)
  • Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament ( 1994)
  • The Oxford Companion to the Bible (1993 )
  • The Reader 's Bible (1983 )
  • Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek (1969 )
  • List of Words Occurring Frequently in the Coptic New Testament ( Sahidic Dialect ) ( 1961)
  • Introduction to the Apocrypha (1957 )
  • The Oxford Concise Concordance to the Revised Standard Version of the Holy Bible


  • The NRSV Bible with Apocrypha the, Compact Edition (2003)
  • Oxford Annotated Apocrypha: Revised Standard Version (1977 )
  • The New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrypha the, Revised Standard Version, Expanded Edition (1977 )
  • Oxford Annotated Apocrypha: The Apocrypha of the Old Testament ( 1977)


  • On 16 November 2000 he got the Bible Translation and Utilization Award from the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA awarded.


Students and staff from Bruce Metzger know numerous anecdotes that underline his work ethic, his knowledge and his kindness:

One of the employees butcher reported that he once consistently seventy-three days long sat in the university of his translations, while his wife, the house could call their own.

Ben Witherington Eusebius tells of a lecture by butchers, which was interrupted by an agitated man waving a manuscript and said, " I have here the oldest copy of the Gospel of Mark in Syrian! " Metzger asked kindly if he could take a look. After about a minute he returned the manuscript and said: ". . Really very interesting, but no Syrian Markus copy There is a bohairisches manuscript from the 6th century, which is not particularly remarkable,"