German Academy of Sciences at Berlin
The Academy of Sciences of the GDR ( Academy of Sciences ), referred to in 1972 as the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (DAW ), was the most important research institution of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). It was officially opened in 1946 and continued at least in part, the tradition of the Prussian Academy of Sciences on. The Academy was both a learned society, in which the ceremony of the membership by election represented a recognition, as well, in contrast to many other academies of science, sponsoring organization of a research community of non-university research institutes.
With the entry into force of the Unification Treaty on 3 October 1990, the learned society of the research institutes and other institutions has been disconnected. In personal continuity to AdW their activities will be continued by the Leibniz firm since 1993. The research projects and holdings of the Academy of Sciences took over the Berlin- Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, founded in 1992, which also sees itself in the tradition of the Prussian Academy. The Academy institutes were dissolved on 31 December 1991 and partially reestablished in sponsorship of other organizations such as the Science Association Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres and the Max Planck Society.
German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (1946-1972)
The German Academy of Sciences in Berlin was a successor organization founded by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in 1700 the Elector of Brandenburg Society of Sciences. After the war she was re-opened on 1 July 1946, the SMAD Order No. 187. The Academy should be founded as " the highest scientific institution " research institutes for specific research tasks and receive. Traditional forms of work, such as scientific commissions and things remained, there are next to it. The redesign of the Berlin Academy was modeled after the Soviet Academy of Sciences. However, they also corresponded to the ideas of the Academy members who had in 1930 demanded in a memorandum by the Prussian state, the formation of social and natural science institutes at the Academy.
With the SMAD Order No. 309 of 18 October 1946, the Academy was first affiliated institutes and facilities. On 27 June 1947, the SMAD gave the Academy the Medico- Biological Institute in Berlin-Buch, also belonged to the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. End of 1949, entertained the Academy in addition to the commissions and things already 23 institutes and 4 laboratories. In subsequent years, further institution -ups or acquisitions. The existing since 1830, two-tier structure was established in 1949 in favor of 6 ( temporarily 5) broken classes.
The situation was very difficult in the early years. The provisions of the Allied Control Council Law No. 25 of April 29, 1946 led to a monitoring of all scientific researches, which were also subject to approval. The Academy was taken in the lack years until the early 50s more and more for the construction work. The location of intelligence should be improved by privileges, so as to prevent the migration of qualified personnel in the western zones to attract skilled workers from the West and achieve a loyal attitude of intelligence to the existing system:
" Without the generous attraction of preparing for honest cooperation intelligence, especially the bourgeois intelligentsia, for economic construction, is neither of the two- year plan to conduct a more extensive rise of a peaceful German economy to achieve. The backward and harmful view that a democratic society and a new life without recourse, transformation and re-education of the old groups of the bourgeois intelligentsia to share creative work were possible, must be rejected. "
The importance of the Academy for the economic development of the GDR in 1951 led to a change of subordination. It was ( in 1954 the Council of Ministers of the GDR ) under the direct authority of the government of the GDR. The Academy had become the main research institution in the GDR. As of April 1952, the magazine was published Scientific annals. However, your very great political influence through research reports and advice to the government lost the Academy in 1957 in favor of the newly established Research Council of the GDR. Also in the following years came the scientific-technical institutes and institutions of great importance in solving the persistent economic problems of the GDR. At the beginning of the academy reform in 1968 decreed the Academy over 65 institutes and facilities. The traditional focus of the work of the Academy had shifted to the scientific and technical field, which should make up about 90 % of the total potential of the Academy in the following time.
The Academy Reform from 1968 to 1972 led to a complete redesign of the organizational structure of the Academy. The six classes were replaced in 1969 by 11 problem- bound classes. Characteristic of the Academy Reform was the concentration process of scientific potentials, such as the formation of uniformly structured central institutions. In 1969, also used the order-related research and task-related financing, which influenced the work of the Academy in the long term and profound. In a decision of the State Council was requested in 1970 by the Academy to provide scientific and technological pioneering and excellence, by the principle of " overtaking without asking " should be realized. The objectives and tasks of scientific and technical work were principally derive from the requirements of economic development. 1972 should be improved by long -term coordination arrangements with a decision of the Council of Ministers, the interaction between science and production. A subsequent regulation lifted the provisions of the order-related research funding again and also limited the share of external research of the Academy to 50%.
Academy of Sciences of the GDR ( 1972-1990/91 )
On October 7, 1972, the renaming of the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin in the Academy of Sciences of the GDR took place. The following year, the problem- bound classes were re- dissolved and replaced by 9 classes. The number of classes increased later to 10 or 11 to the plenum of the learned society in 1981 were 153 ordinary and 76 corresponding members, 27 from Germany. The academy possessed at the end of over 59 institutions ( or institutes as central control center for the entire GDR ) and facilities with over 22,000 scientists.
In 1985 undertook a Regulation of the Council of Ministers, the Academy, use the greater part of their research potential for industrial contracts come to be funded through this. The research contract was extended in the following years to over 50%. This created a conflict between basic and applied research.
After the political changes in 1989, the Academy members called for a fundamental renewal of the Academy. The leading role of the SED was deleted from the statute. In December 1989, a Council of the Institute representatives and in February 1990 the " Round Table of the Academy of Sciences " was formed. On 27 June 1990, the Statute of the Academy has been overridden and the academy to a public corporation. With the introduction of the Deutschmark contract research finally collapsed because the industrial enterprises were unable to fund external research tasks. On 11 July 1990, the Science Council initiated an evaluation of the institutes of the Academy. Of these were converted founded in the aftermath 21 into corresponding successor institutions under different ownership, 28 were broken down into several facilities, five institutes were integrated into existing research institutions and six were dissolved. From the Academy of Sciences institutes here three major research centers of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres and nine branch offices of the Helmholtz centers, 27 new institutes of the Leibniz Association and four branch offices of Leibniz institutes, 17 institutes of the Fraunhofer -Gesellschaft, two new institutes of developed Max Planck Society, three federal institutions and four branches and six research institutions in sponsorship of the new federal states. In both organizational as well as personal aspects which at the time as " Blue List " designated Leibniz took by far the largest proportion of the Academy of Sciences Institutes.
The Unification Treaty, which entered into force on 3 October 1990, the separation of the governed " Academy of Sciences of the GDR as a learned society, the research institutes and other institutions ." The institutions and bodies should persist for up to 31 December 1991 as the institutions of the countries, unless they have been previously dissolved or converted. According to the Unification Treaty, the decision as the learned society is to continue to meet state law. The Berlin Senate Department for Science and Research of the opinion that "the learned society of the former Academy of Sciences can not be regarded as the bearer of the tradition of the Berlin Academy and is that a future Academy of Sciences in Berlin from this institution ... Do not build up ." She held " a new constitution for inevitable ". On 28 March 1993, the Berlin- Brandenburg Academy of Sciences was re-constituted. The learned society of the former Academy of Sciences of the GDR leads since April 1993 continued her scientific work as Leibniz firm eV.
Lists of classes and institutes
- List of classes of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR
- List of the institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR