Gian Giorgio Trissino
Gian Giorgio Trissino was born in Vicenza, the son of a patrician family, but soon driven from his home city and dispossessed because he had supported the candidature of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at Vicenza. He studied Greek at Demetrios Chalkokondyles in Milan and philosophy at Niccolò Leoniceno in Ferrara and then traveled throughout Italy. Trissino was mainly supported by Pope Leo X, who sent him as ambassador to Germany and settled cancel his conviction, and of his successor, Clement VII, whom he accompanied to the church congress in Bologna. In 1536 he met the architect Palladio know, which he financed a trip to Rome in 1541 to study the Roman architecture. The rest of his life Trissino in Padua, Milan and Rome.
The most famous work Trissinos is the tragedy Sofonisba (Rome 1524, German 1888), which he wrote in Rome 1514-1515, but was only listed in 1556 for the first time. Trissino wrote the work in unrhymed iambic pentameter ( insured sciolti ), which he is said to have introduced the first in the Italian literature, but in some episodes, he also falls back in rhymed verse. Here Trissino follows the technique of Greek theater by introducing a chorus, commenting on the action and. Due to the strict observance of the unity of action and the time
In the comedy I Simillimi ( 1548) attempted Trissino types of Latin comedy by Plautus introduce in the Italian literature, in turn, connected with techniques of the Greek theater.
( Freed Italy from the Goths ) With Italia Liberata dai Goti, on which he worked for over twenty years, Trissino tried to create a national heroic epic based on historical events. Background for the story is the war between Goths and Byzantines to the conquest of Italy in the 6th century; the hero is Belisarius, the Byzantine army leader. As source was Trissino Prokop, the poetic basis he took the Ars Poetica by Aristotle, the model is Homer. However, the attempt to mythology and Christian religion fails to connect, also affects the Italian hendecasyllable used by Trissino by antique pattern cumbersome. The epic comprises a total of 27 books and was completed in 1547.
Following the example of the Greek language as Attic Koine Trissino developed his conception of Italian in Castellano, in which his alter ego Giovanni Rucellai developed his theories of language planning. On the basis of different dialects, by omission of the respective special forms, to create a common language that is spoken by all and therefore the Italian language can be called. In his Italian translation of the written by Dante Alighieri in Latin language treatise De vulgari eloquentia ( About the vernacular ) (1529 ) continued Trissino his ideas into practice, even in the use of a strictly phonetic orthography, for which he used from the Greek borrowed characters, eg to distinguish the open and closed / e / and / o /, and the voiced and unvoiced / s /. This new orthography used Trissino first in the Sofonisba and explained the principles in a letter to Clement VII He was subsequently sharply criticized by Tolomei, Martelli and Firenzuola, he defended his conception in the following year in the Dubbi grammaticali.
Trissinos language model is based on the use of Italian in particular in the aristocratic and cultured circles, and is in the Questione della lingua ( language issue ) of the 16th century, Pietro Bembo against the conceptions of, Baldassare Castiglione and Niccolò Machiavelli.
Furthermore Trissino wrote a poetics (Le was Divisioni delle poetica, 1529), in which he dealt with problems of poetry, among other things, he argued that in art the technology is more important than inspiration and feeling. Overall, this theory of poetry anticipates the conception of the Counter-Reformation. Furthermore Trissino wrote the Epistola della vita che una donna dee tenere vedova ( writing about the life that has lead to a widowed woman) and the Ritratti, poems dedicated to Isabella d' Este.
- Tutte le opere di Gian Giorgio Trissino non più raccoltate, Verona 1729 (2 full. ).