As house arrest is referred to the ban on leaving a house or an apartment.
House arrest in education ( room arrest )
House arrest is used in the education of children as punishment. It is the child prohibited (except for going to school, etc.) to leave the parental home. The house arrest as a means of punishment is usually pronounced for a few days, often also for longer periods of time such as weeks or months. Langer house arrest is considered one of the most severe punishments without direct violence.
On 2 November 2000, the "Law for zero tolerance of violence in education and to amend the child support laws " ( Federal Law Gazette I, p 1479 ) was adopted. The relevant part of the tolerance of violence in education came into force on 8 November 2000 and has § 1631 para 2 BGB taken as follows: "Children have a right to violence-free education. Physical punishment, psychological injuries and other degrading measures are inadmissible. "
Under this law, house arrest is in education only to the extent allowed if no psychological violence caused by short arrest times or a condition occurs that affects the physical condition of the child in any manner. A school-age children Keep away from school is also illegal.
House arrest in the Austrian penal code of 1852
The old Austrian penal code of 1852 saw before next arrest first and second degree also house arrest.
The criminal law was adopted on 27 May 1852, and entered into force on 1 September 1852, and was until its abolition on 1 January 1975 a total of 123 years in power. The curfew could be imposed on mere swearing to be able to not remove the house or with the installation of a guard. The Shawshank Redemption was at threat of punishment forbidden to leave the house in any way. If we violate live the rest of arrest time was completed in public Verhaftorten. The shortest detention time could be imposed between four and twenty hours, the longest up to six months.
House arrest in dictatorships
House arrests are used in particular in countries with authoritarian regimes for political reasons. Prohibits the state authority it this one opposition or dissidents to leave his apartment. Just as often applies a ban on visits and phone or Internet connection to be interrupted. This serves to define its political work are difficult or prevented. One such house arrest is criticized under constitutional criteria, since it is usually not imposed as punishment for an unlawful act, but arbitrarily without court order or show trials for political reasons.
House arrest in Legal States
House arrest is discussed as a measure in constitutional states and already used in some countries like the United States, France or the Netherlands. Here, the arrest is applied as an adhesive replacement or preventive measure in legal basis and judicial order. Model trials in Germany about in Hesse, Hamburg and Baden- Württemberg. Technically, such an arrest is usually implemented with electronic shackles worn by Date Fixed and record his whereabouts using GPS.
- Galileo Galilei was made from 1633 to 1642 under house arrest.
- Robert Havemann, GDR regime critic, was from 1976 to 1979 under house arrest
- Yasser Arafat was in his last years under house arrest in Ramallah.
- The house arrest of Burmese regime critic Aung San Suu Kyi made repeated headlines.
- Zeng Jinyan, the wife of jailed Chinese dissident in February 2008 and Sakharov Prize winner Hu Jia, who was previously even under house arrest, is currently set for the second time under house arrest.
- Erich Priebke, former officer in the Waffen-SS war criminals and, in Italy, of his conviction in 1998 until his death in 2013 under house arrest.
- Étienne Tshisekedi, former Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Congo ( presumably under a non- officially pronounced house arrest )
- Mordechai Vanunu, the Israeli nuclear technician who revealed in 1985 the existence of the previously undisclosed nuclear research program of Israel and thus de facto nuclear-armed country; In 1986 he was sentenced to 18 years in prison, of which he spent about 11 years in solitary confinement; In 2009 he was placed under house arrest.