Il gran Tamerlano

  • Tamerlano ( Timur Tamerlane ), Khan of the Mongols - Baritone
  • Bajazete ( Bajazet ), the Turkish Sultan, in captivity - Bass
  • Asteria, his daughter - Soprano
  • Andronico ( Andronicus ), her lover - Tenor
  • Irene, Tamerlane's former lover - Mezzo- Soprano
  • Idaspe ( Daspes ), one of the generals of Tamerlane - Alt ( trouser role )

Il gran Tamerlano ( " Tamerlane the Great") is an opera seria in three acts by the Czech composer Josef Mysliveček.


Background for the story is the Battle of Ankara in 1402, when the Mongol ruler Timur / Tamerlan the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Bajazet / Bayezid I. defeated and jailed. In addition to the Sultan and his daughter Asteria is jailed in turn falls in love with the Mongol rulers. Asteria loves admittedly Andronico, with probably a son of Manuel II should be meant, who was from 1408 to 1425 Prince of Thessaloniki.

Act I

Tamerlano, the conqueror of the Turkish Sultan Bajazete, falls in love with his daughter Asteria, which he has captured together with his father. This, however, loves Andronico, a Greek prince who had fought as an ally on the side of Tamerlano. Andronico loves, of course, Asteria, Tamerlano which of course do not know. Tamerlano had already tried to put pressure on Bajazet, to allow him to marry, but this was unsuccessful. Now he wants Andronico win it and promises him with his own kingdom plus a actually engaged with him, but now "superfluous " Irene, reward, if he can persuade the jailed Sultan Bajazete to give him his daughter Asteria wife. This announcement brings course Irene itself to the plan that are not so easily let scare, but rather wants to fight for her love or to Tamerlano.

Second Act

Bajazete strictly refuses to give his daughter in marriage Tamerlano, is itself threatened as him with death. His daughter Asteria is, supposedly to save the father, but actually in the secret purpose so close to get at Tamerlano and kill him in small and agrees to the wedding. When her father accuses her of betraying, they are to their actual plan, which in turn brings to Tamerlano, plotting its revenge.

Act Three

Now working as a revenge must Asteria as a maid for Tamerlano - and watch her father there. Bajazete thereupon his daughter a poison so they could " it bravely gebrauche ". He wanted to follow her in death, if they have successfully completed the revenge. Asteria attempts to use the poison from father to poison Tamerlano, but what observed by Irene and by Tamerlane now reveals himself to him and warns against the poison attack is thwarted. So Tamerlano is clear who really loves him and he is the marriage Asterias with Andronico no longer in the way. Heavy disappointed in ( that he has lost during the battle ), and by his daughter - and that unforgiving come to terms with the new circumstances - to Tamerlano is his poison and dies.

The libretto

The libretto was written by Agostino Piovene ( 1671-1721 ). For the first time in 1711 by Francesco Gasparini in Venice brought to the stage, it was usually under the original title Tamerlano, among others, set to music by

  • Francesco Gasparini - ( January 24, 1711 Venice, Teatro San Cassiano ) - revised as Bajazet ( 1719 Reggio Emilia, Pubblico ); revised as Bajazette (1723 Venice, S. Samuele, Fiera dell'Ascensione )
  • ( unknown) - ( 1719 Ancona, Teatro La Fenice )
  • Fortunato Chelleri - (1720 Treviso)
  • Leonardo Leo as Bajazete, imperador de'Turchi ( edited by B. Saddumene, pastiche, along with Anonymous - August 30, 1722 Naples, Palazzo Real )
  • Georg Friedrich Händel - ( edited by Nicolo Francesco Haym ) ( 3 to 23 July 1724; November 11, 1724 London, King's Theatre, Haymarket ) to Handel's Tamerlano more see here
  • Giovanni Antonio Giai - ( August 28, 1727 Milan, Teatro Ducale )
  • Nicola Porpora - (Carnival 1730 Turin, Teatro Regio)
  • Giovanni de Porta Il gran Tamerlano as - (1730 Florence, Teatro della Pergola )
  • Antonio Vivaldi - (Carnival 1735 Verona, Teatro Filarmonico ) ( Vivaldi facility arranged pastiche with arias by Hasse, Giacomelli, Porpora and Broschi ), again in 1739, Bajazet
  • Andrea Bernasconi - as Bajazet (Fall 1742 Venice, rev 1754 Munich. )
  • Egidio Romualdo Duni - as Bajazette o Tamerlano (Fall 1743 Florence, pergola )
  • Giovanni Battista Lampugnani - Il gran Tamerlano as ( January 20, 1746 Milan )
  • Niccolò Jommelli - as Bajazette (1753 Torino )
  • Gioacchino Cocchi and Giovanni Battista Pescetti - (Carnival 1754 Venice, San Samuele ), Act 1 of Cocchi, Act 2 of Pescetti, Act 3 of both
  • Giuseppe Sarti as Il gran Tamerlano (Carnival 1764 Copenhagen, Kongelige Teater )
  • Giuseppe Scolari - 1764
  • Giuseppe Scarlatti - as Bajazet (Carnival 1765 Verona Accademia filarmonica )
  • Ferdinando ( Gasparo ) Bertoni - as Il Bajazetto ( edited by Jacopo Antonio Sanvitale ), ( 1765 Parma)
  • Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi - (Ascension Day 1765 Venice, Teatro S. Salvatore )

And after Mysliveček of

  • Gaetano Marinelli - as Bajazette (2 acts) ( May 1799 Venice)
  • Pietro Generali - as Bajazet (1819 Florence)

One of the most famous predecessor, Antonio Vivaldi, who brought the libretto under the title Bajazete, but as pastiche, 1735 in Venice to the performance. Notwithstanding the vast number of operas is the title hero in " " Il Gran Tamerlano "" from Mysliveček no Kastratenrolle, but written for baritone and with Bajazet, we have, as in Vivaldi, a veritable bass role. When George Frideric Handel, the same substance - but on a libretto by Nicola Francesco Haym - brought 1724 in London as Tamerlano premiered and in the years to 1731 several times to reissue, Tamerlano are traditionally a castrato, and Bajazet a tenor.

World premiere and after-effects

Myslivecek " " Gran Tamerlano " " was premiered on December 26, 1771 at the Teatro Regio Ducale in Milan and opened the Carnival season 1772 The cast was as follows. :

  • Tamerlano - Giuseppe Millico
  • Bajazette - Giovanni Battista Zonca
  • Asteria - Antonia Maria Girelli Aguilar
  • Andronico - Giuseppe Cicognani
  • Irene - Anna Boselli
  • Idaspe - Pink Poli Dora

The premiere was very successful and many arias are reused in other operas of the time, such as " Di quel amabil ciglio " or the aria "Il caro e solo oggetto. " Opening symphony like how Daniel E. Freeman has shown, Mozart have served as an inspiration for his Symphony No. 9.

1776, the opera was brought in Pavia one more time to the performance.

Modern performances

A first revival was in 1967 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, instead. 10 years later, there was a revival in Prague, but in abbreviated form.

Arias and duets in Il Gran Tamerlano

Act I, Scene 1 - Aria Bajazette, " Superbo di mia varietal " Act I, Sz 4 - Tamerlano, " Vanne la mia varietal " Act I, Sz 5 - Andronico, " Chi non ode i miei sospiri " Act I, Sz 7 - Tamerlano, "Che per voi sospiro " Act I, Sz 10 - Asteria, " Sento nel alma mia" Act I, Sz 13 - Irene, " Tradito ed appresso " Act I, Sz 14 - chorus, " Già ti il mondo intero cede " Act I, Sz 15 - Duet Tamerlano and Asteria, " Di quel amabil ciglio "

Act II, Scene 2 - ARIA Bajazette, " In mezzo all tempeste " Act II, Scene 4 - ARIA Andronico, " Se ti se mirre quest'alma " Act II, Scene 5 - ARIA Bajazette, " Sazia il tuo fiero orgoglio " Act II, Scene 6 - ARIA Asteria, " CADRO, cada sì, io stessa " Act II, Scene 8 - ARIA Irene, " Quell'empio cor istabile " Act II, Scene 9 - ARIA Tamerlano, "Il caro e solo oggetto " Act II, Scene 10 - ARIA Idaspe, "Fra il mar turbato, e nero " Act II, Scene 11 - ARIA Asteria, " Nacqui in seno alla sventura " Act II, Scene 12 - Choir, " Lieti Sposi, ah venga Imene " Act II, Scene 13 - Quartet Tamerlano, Bajazette, Asteria and Andronico, " Smanio, veneggio e fremo "

Act III, Scene 2 - ARIA Bajazette, " Pria di salir " Act III, Scene 4 - ARIA Tamerlano, " M'offende il nemico " Act III, Scene 7 - ARIA Asteria, " Non mi vedo " Act III, Scene 9 - Choir, " Doppo il nembo e la procella "