The ion plating ( ion plating English ) is a vacuum-based and plasma-based coating technique is one of the methods of physical vapor deposition ( engl. physical vapor deposition, PVD).
Basics of Ion Plating
The " cladding " is understood in the metal machining, the application of a higher-valent metal layer to another metal. Ion plating, this is not done by molding or welding, but with a plasma-assisted method. First, the substrate surface is cleaned by ion bombardment from the plasma (so-called "soft etch " by sputtering). Then metallic vapor is fed from a vapor source. This partially ionized in the plasma and is caused by a bias voltage ( 0.3 to 5 kV) at the most pre-heated substrate is accelerated to the surface thereof and forming on the substrate a layer of vaporized material. With the constant bombardment with metal ions, a part of the substrate or the layer is removed ( sputtered ) over and over again. The solute atoms condense on the substrate and contribute to the film formation at. The constant ion bombardment modifies the layer properties, it usually improves the adhesion of the layer. The resulting layer structure depends strongly on the temperature of the substrate.
Typical operating pressures for the ion plating are 5 Pa.
In addition to the normal ion plating, there is still a reactive variant, the reactive ion plating (RIP). Additionally, a reactive gas is introduced into the plasma, which is also ionized, reacts with the sputtered metal to form a layer of the resulting compound. In this way, for example, titanium nitride layers of titanium vapor and nitrogen -initiated are generated.
- Physical vapor deposition
- Semiconductor Technology
- Surface Physics