Johann Abraham Peter Schulz

Johann Abraham Peter Schulz ( born March 31, 1747 in Lüneburg, † June 10, 1800 in Schwedt ) was a German musician and composer. Today, one of his particularly as a composer of the melody for Matthias Claudius ' poem " Evening Song " ("The moon has risen ") and the Christmas song " Little Children, come " ( " Every year " is, albeit sometimes to read as not composed by Schulz, but by Friedrich Silcherstraße ). Another hymn, is still known by the Schulz today is "We plow and we sprinkle ".


Schulz attended from 1757 to 1759 the Michaelis School and then from 1759 to 1764 the Johanneum in Lüneburg. In 1765 he became a student of the Berlin composer Johann Philipp KirnBerger. From 1776 to 1780 he was conductor of the French theater in Berlin. In 1780 he was Kapellmeister of Prince Henry in Rheinberg. From 1787 to 1795 he was royal Danish court conductor in Copenhagen. In addition to his conductor and composer career, he taught there Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse (1774-1842), who many considered the father of Danish music, and promoted Friedrich Ludwig Æmilius Kunzen. He then returned to Berlin.

In the 1790s, Schulz suffered from progressive tuberculosis. In the hope of relief, he planned a voyage to Portugal, which ended after a shipwreck in the Norwegian Arendal. Back in Germany he lived in Lüneburg ( 1796), Berlin, Rheinberg (1797 ), Szczecin ( 1798/1799 ) and Schwedt ( 1799/1800 ).

On June 10, 1800 Johann Abraham Peter Schulz died of tuberculosis and was buried in the Great Churchyard, today Schwedter city park.

Schulz created operas, stage music, oratorios, cantatas, besides also piano pieces and popular songs. As a music theorist, he worked on Johann Philipp Kirnberger with The Art of the pure rate in the music and wrote significant contributions to Johann Georg Sulzer (1720-1779) " General Theory of the Fine Arts" in four volumes ( lemmas " modulation " to " Zweystimmig " ).

Schulz married twice, first in 1781 Wilhelmine Friederike Caroline wing († 1784) from Berlin; with her he had a daughter and a son, both of whom died in the first year of life. 1786, he married Caroline's sister Charlotte wings ( † 1797). From her son Carl Eduard was born, who died at the age of three and in 1794 the daughter Wilhelmine Charlotte ( called Minna ) that lived during his last years in Schwedt with the Father. She later married the glass manufacturer Ludwig Heinrich Betzien and died in Berlin in 1861.

Schulz maintained numerous friendships with writers and musicians of his time, including Johann Heinrich Voss, Matthias Claudius, Friederike Brun and Johann Friedrich Reichardt. He was an admirer of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and Friedrich Schiller.

In Schwedt is named urban music and arts school after Johann Abraham Peter Schulz. The carillon of Lüneburg Town Hall plays since 1956 daily melodies of the composer and before the Council library is a bust of the composer.


" In all these songs and remains my aspiration, more folk art than moderate moderate to sing, even so that even inexperienced lover of song, as soon as they lack not entirely of voice, such sing easily and can keep heart. For this purpose I have chosen only those texts of our songs poets who seemed to me to be made ​​to this people singing, and me eagerly in the melodies of even the highest Simplicität and comprehensibility, indeed sought in every way to bring the appearance of acquaintance into it because I know from experience how much this bill is the folk songs conducive to its rapid recommendation, indeed necessary. In this sham of acquaintances the whole secret of Volkstons is ... Because decreases only by a striking resemblance of the musical with the poetic tone of the song, by a melody whose progression never rises above the path of the text, still under him, like a dress the body, the declamation and the Metro the words hugs, the continuing flows also in very singable intervals in one, all voices reasonable extent and in the allerleichtesten modulations and finally by the highest perfection of the ratios of all its parts, which is actually the melody that rounding is given that any work of art out of the areas of the Small is so indispensable, the song is given the appearance of which is mentioned here, the appearance of unsought, the artless, the known, in a word, the people's sound, making it into the ear so impresses as quickly and incessantly returning. And that's the ultimate purpose of the song- if he wants his only legitimate intent to remain in this Compositionsgattung to make generally known good lyrics, true. "


Piano Works

  • Six Piano Pieces, Op 1, 1778.
  • Sonata op 2, 1778.


  • Songs in Folk Style, , 1779.
  • Songs in Folk Style, 1782, 1785, 1790. Facsimile of the 1790 edition: Songs in Folk Style: bey the Claviere to sing; Three parts in one volume. In: Documentation of the History of the German song 12, 2005, ISBN 3-487-12958-2.
  • Songs in folk style. Edited by Regina Oehlmann and Arndt Schnoor. Lübeck: Library of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck and Lübeck Young Opera; Eutin. Johann Heinrich Voss Society 2005 (Writings of Lübeck City Library, 3rd series, Volume 49 )
  • Songs in folk style. Edited by Walther Dürr and Stefanie Steiner, Tübingen, in collaboration with Michael Kohlhäufl, Regensburg. Munich: Henle, 2006 ( The Legacy of German Music 105).

Operas and musical comedies ( among other things)

  • Barber of Seville, 1786.
  • Höst - Gildet ( The Harvest Festival ), 1790.
  • Indtoget ( The Feeder), 1793.
  • Bryllup Peters (Peters wedding). Libretto Thomas Thaarup

Church Musical Works

  • Mary and John, 1788.
  • Death of Christ, 1792.
  • Frelseren 's sidste hour (Des Redeemer last hour), in 1794.
  • 4 Anthems 1791 bis in 1794.