Johann Gottfried Gruber

Johann Gottfried Gruber ( * November 29, 1774 in Naumburg / Saale; † August 7, 1851 in Halle / Saale; pseudonyms: Adolph Grimm, Joseph out of the pit, Iocosus Hilarius ) was a German polymath, lexicographer and writer.


The son of an impotent master tailor († 1814) Gruber attended the Council School in his hometown of Naumburg. From 1792, he studied classical philology, history and philosophy in Leipzig, where he passed the master's examination in December 1793 and subsequently worked as a freelance writer and publicist. After Gruber had 1803 habilitation at the University of Jena, he taught there as a lecturer in philosophy and aesthetics to 1805 he moved to Weimar. In the city of scholars, among others Gruber wrong with Christoph Martin Wieland. After the battle of Jena was his goods pillaged the roving French troops.

Virtually penniless followed Gruber 1811 a call to the newly created Chair of Auxiliary Historical Sciences at the University of Wittenberg. As a result of the division of Saxony (→ Vienna Congress ), he was entrusted by the Prussian state government with the negotiations on the merger of the universities of Halle and Wittenberg. After the successful merger of the two institutions Gruber received at the now United Friedrich -University Halle -Wittenberg professor of philosophy, and was elected in 1817 to their first pro-rector. In this office he arrived in 1818, 1819, 1820, 1830 and 1840.

In Hall Gruber continued his relationship to Weimar. He held, inter alia lectures on aesthetics, history of philosophy, literature, history, mythology and philosophical anthropology and got a complete edition of the works of Christoph Martin Wieland, which he enclosed a biography of the poet.

Of special importance was Gruber as co-founder of the "General Encyclopedia of Sciences and Arts, in alphabetical order " ( " Ersch - Gruber "), a monumental, unfinished scientific encyclopedia, of the total of 168 volumes have been published 1818-1889. After his co- editor, Johann Samuel Ersch, had died in 1828, took over Gruber de facto sole editorship and led the first section (Vol. 18-54 ) continued until his death.

Works (selection)

  • System of educational science. Leipzig in 1794.
  • Cupid and Hymen. Leipzig in 1794.
  • Jesus and Socrates. Leipzig, 1796.
  • Actenstücke in the cause of Fichte's atheism. 2 volumes, Leipzig, 1799.
  • Uiber the destiny of man. 2 volumes, Zurich / Leipzig in 1800.
  • Customs and traditions of the most remarkable nations. 2 volumes, Leipzig, 1803.
  • Johann Traugott Leberecht Danz: v. Johann Gottfried Herder's characteristics. Leipzig 1805.
  • Spirit and history of all religions. Leipzig 1806.
  • History of the human race from the point of view of humanity. 2 volumes, Leipzig 1806/ 07 release.
  • Dictionary of the ancient classical mythology and religion. 3 volumes, Weimar from 1810 to 1815.
  • August Lafontaine 's life and work. Hall 1833
  • (Ed.): C. M. Wieland's collected works. (53 volumes, Leipzig 1818-1828 )
  • (Ed.): Klopstock's odes. (2 volumes, Leipzig 1831)
  • (Ed. with Johann Samuel Ersch ): General Encyclopedia of Sciences and Arts, in alphabetical order. (167 volumes, Leipzig, 1818-1889; digitized )