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Heads of State · Obituary · Literature Year
Queen Victoria opened the Great Exhibition in London.
Year of the Metal Pig辛亥( at the beginning of the year metal dog庚戌)
Syria: 2162/63 ( the year in October )
- 2.1 First Quarter
- 2.2 Second Quarter
- 2.3 Third Quarter
- 2.4 Fourth Quarter
- 2.5 Exact date of birth unknown
- 3.1 First half of
- 3.2 Second half of
- 3.3 More death unknown
Politics and World Affairs
The Great Exhibition in London
- May 6: The American physician John Gorrie was granted a patent on his invention of the refrigerator. He is ridiculed and has no economic success with it.
- MARCH 22: The Kingdom of Württemberg separates from the private Thurn - und-Taxis -Post and establishes a state-owned enterprise for the postal service.
- May 1: The Grand Duchy of Baden issues its first stamps. In traffic gets even 43 years later discovered Baden- misprint 9 Kreuzer, a great rarity of philately.
- The clothing manufacturer Fruit of the Loom is founded under the name of BB and R. Knight Corporation.
- December 25: Chile's first rail link between Copiapó and Caldera in the Atacama region is opened.
- The Illinois Central Railroad was established, which will connect in the next few years Chicago with the Mississippi River.
Science and Technology
Astronomy, meteorology, physics
- MARCH 26: A third experiment with the pendulum leads the scientist Jean Bernard Léon Foucault by this time in the Paris Panthéon. Using a 67 meter hanging rope he proves with the experiment, the Earth's rotation.
- July 23: In the Empire of Austria, Emperor Franz Joseph approved the erection of a Central Institute for meteorological and magnetic observations. This creates the world's first national weather service, today's Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics ( ZAMG).
- October 24: William Lassell discovered Ariel and Umbriel Uranus moons.
- George Gabriel Stokes published the equations of Navier -Stokes hydrodynamics ( in Cambridge Transactions 9 ( 1851), 8)
Teaching and research
- January 28: In the U.S. state of Illinois Northwestern University is founded.
- July 10: The private University of the Pacific was founded in Stockton ( California).
- August 4: The missionary and explorer David Livingstone reached the headwaters of the Zambezi.
- October 3: The American pastor and beekeeper Lorenzo L. Langstroth discovered the bees distance ( bee space).