Karl Friedrich Nebenius

Karl Friedrich Nebenius ( born September 29, 1784 in Rhodt, † June 8, 1857 in Karlsruhe ) was a civil servant Baden, Liberal Minister of State and Freemasons.


As the son of Johann Wilhelm Nebenius ( Councilor, Baden bailiff in Rhodt and Mahlberg ) born Nebenius worked for a legal studies in Tübingen 1807-1849 in various positions in Baden civil service.

He was the author of the Baden Constitution of 1818, drafted the order of dimension of Baden in 1828, reformed the education of the Grand Duchy. Among other things, he led in 1832 through a comprehensive reorganization of the Polytechnic School in Karlsruhe. Improving infrastructure was another field of activity of Nebenius. He ran the accession of Baden with the German Zollverein in 1836, the state-funded construction of the Baden railway from Mannheim to Basel and the construction of the Mannheim harbor.

1807 Nebenius resigned as Secretary of the Secret Department of Finance in the Baden government service in 1809 and used a longer holiday to a stay in Paris and Besancon to study the business of the French authorities there. Nebenius learned, so to speak, in practice, the Administrator of the Department of Doubs and Bas -Rhin, the former deputies of the French National Assembly Jean Antoine Joseph Debry. Debry, the " Sincérité et la Parfaite Union " in Besancon was also the Provincial Grand Master for Burgundy the French-Swiss Masonic Order " Chevaliers bienfaisants de la Cite Sainte " and Worshipful Master of the Masonic Lodge, Nebenius during this time is in Freemasonry. Appointed county council in Durlach 1810, he was in 1811 appointed to the Finance Ministry, where he solved difficult and complicated tasks in the field of organization and legislation with the later Finance Minister Christian Friedrich Böckh.

It belonged to the comprehensive review of the tax cadastre, the introductions to the enforcement of legislation on indirect taxation and the transformation of the entire national accounting. These were daunting task when you consider that uniform guidelines were instituted for a variety of territories that did not belong so far to swim. This happened at a time in which the restrictions imposed by the Napoleonic wars and their consequences the Treasury as the residents of the country loads, increased to an intolerable degree.

Also, the state of emergency, which, after a finite -establishment of peace in the inflation between 1816 ( the year without a summer ) and 1817 there was, took the labor of Nebenius very claim, both by the increased number of transactions in the Treasury as by the strenuous activity in a for relief state of emergency particularly low set " Immediatcommission ".

After a long, ongoing since 1815, negotiations under the leadership of Ernst Philip of Sensburg Nebenius was commissioned by Grand Duke Karl to prepare a new draft constitution, and by virtue of this design was made on 22 August 1818, the promulgation of the Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Baden, the most liberal Constitution in Germany at that time.

The thorough knowledge of the economy not only of their own country and neighboring countries, but also - according to former terms - also countries such as Britain, occupied its related publications. In 1820 he published his classic work on the " Public Credit " which Heinrich von Treitschke is on a par with the work of David Ricardo and as " an invaluable school strictly methodical thinking boasts ," Wilhelm Roscher as "the best monograph in the national wirth economic literature of Germany " designated.

As a particularly outstanding Nebenius " remarks about the state of Britain in staatswirthschaftlicher respect " also apply (1818 ), a font, which also touched on Germany's trade relations and freedom of movement within, border tariffs demanded by external Introduction of a common Mauth system at the borders, and the ( only 1833 in bookstores published ) memorandum on the German customs.

Nebenius appeared a German Zollverein as the most effective means of salvation from the prevailing state of emergency, threatened to succumb under the trade and industry of Germany. Nebenius envisioned a small German Zollverein to the exclusion of Austria -Hungary, this empire should be the Zollverein associated by commercial contract. By Nebenius in his memorandum emphasized the need for the customs union, he also dismissed the possibility and the conditions of the design was the first German statesman after.

If later on the design of the later great German customs union, variously deviated from the idea, which Nebenius gave expression in that memorandum, as its author was allowed to but after completion of the Prussian- Hessian Customs Union of appreciation of his work by no less delight than Friedrich Eichhorn, who wrote on November 28, 1833 " to the great satisfaction it will redound to the author, when he is seen in the treaties of the now becoming a common customs and trade system associated States, as the ideas are now fully come to life, which he have been as early as in 1819 harbored on the conditions of a German customs union and made ​​known. "

Not lesser proportion had Nebenius at the Baden Elementary Schools Act of 1835. As a concession application for a rail line through the Rhine valley in straightest and shortest route from Mannheim to Basel was submitted to the Government in 1836, there were in Germany just a few short rail lines from were built in private funds. The low- set to consider the proposal government committee suggested Nebenius right to build the railway at government expense. His later duplicated by the pressure of opinion, which combines a wide view with thoroughness and all-round review of the relevant points, prompted in 1838 the state legislature to approve the project. His initiative and energy is also due to the very significant for the conditions at that time port construction in Mannheim. Nebenius decisively promoted with these projects the economic and political cohesion and development of the new state of Baden.

1830 Friedrich Nebenius was awarded the Kommenturkreuz of Zähringerplatz lions Order.

1838-39 and 1845-46, he served as Minister of State (today we would say: Prime Minister ), the Baden government. In October 1839, he had due to disagreements with his conservative opponent, withdraw foreign minister Friedrich Karl von Landolin Blittersdorf.

During the revolution of 1848/1849 Nebenius was dismissed from government service. He was a member of the Masonic Lodge Carl concord in Mannheim and Leopold to faithfulness in Karlsruhe. Nebenius played a key role in ensuring that Masonic Lodges in the Grand Duchy of Baden were re-admitted publicly.

Nebenius was a close political and Masonic companion of Karl Heinrich Rau, with whom he allied himself and family. His daughter was married to Albertine versions son and Masonic brother Ludwig. He was also a brother of the liberal Baden Interior Minister Ludwig Georg von Winter, with whom he worked closely politically very well.

One of his grandsons was the Reichsgerichtsrat Ernst Heydweiller. About him Nebenius was related to the Baden National Liberal Education Minister William Nokk.

About his Aunt Albertine Franziska Nebenius Karl Friedrich Nebenius was also related to the French jurists, historians, topographers and diplomats Johann Benedict Scherer.


  • The public credit. Shown in the history and in the consequences of the financial operations of the major European states since the preparation of the general land and Seefriedens, their degree rules in the creation or mounting public Creditanstalten, and made ​​the events in the trading world, so their effect together. DR Marx's bookstore, Carlsruhe 1820 ( the 2nd edition as: On the Nature and Causes of the public credit, government bonds, the redemption of the public debt, trade in government securities and the interaction between the credit operations of the State and the economic and political states of the country. ibid. 1829).
  • Memorandum for accession to the Baden concluded between Prussia, Bavaria, Württemberg, both Hesse and several other German states Zollverein. Publisher Chr Fr Muller Hofbuchhandlung, Karlsruhe 1833 digitized.
  • The German Zollverein, his system and his future. Publisher Chr Fr Muller Hofbuchhandlung, Carlsruhe 1835 ( Unchanged reprint. Auvermann, glassworks i Ts 1970), digitized.