Kolomna Kremlin

The Kremlin of Kolomna (Russian Коломенский кремль ) is a listed ensemble from the 16th century in the Russian city of Kolomna 110 km southeast of Moscow. It is a former city fortifications like Moscow Kremlin. The ensemble consists of parts of a boundary wall with watchtowers and several historic buildings (including two monasteries ) that once were within this wall.


Much like the other Old Russian Kremlin south and south-east of Moscow ( that is, the Ryazan, the Saraisker and the Tula Kremlin ) was the citadel of Kolomna securing the southern borders of the Moscow Grand Duchy, the example of the course of his history often targets Crimean Tatars was. To protect the southern border, a bit further south of the river Oka was, therefore, the so-called Verhaulinie was created. Several strategically especially convenient locations have been upgraded to fortress cities. One of these places was Kolomna, located near the confluence of the Moskva and Oka.

The construction of a citadel city after Moscow model began in May 1525 only a few years after the protected at that time only by a wooden mounting Kolomna was raided and burnt down by the Crimean Tatar troops of Mehmed I. Giray. It is not known to me, who were the architects of the new Kremlin, a participation of Italian architects - similar to the construction of the Moscow Kremlin - but is suspected. After six years of construction, the new citadel was completed in August 1531.

Originally, the Kremlin had 17 watchtowers that were built into a continuous, up to 21 meter high boundary wall. From its surface ago the 24 -acre Kremlin of Kolomna was only slightly smaller than its Moscow model ( 27.5 ha). The fort was located on the high bank of the Moskva River near the mouth of the river Kolomenka. Both these defend and convenient location as well as the solid construction of the fortifications - in the construction was made, ia on the abundant deposits of clay and limestone in the vicinity Kolomna - made ​​the city extremely difficult now capturable. This became clear at the end of 1606 during the peasant uprising of Ivan Bolotnikov, who tried unsuccessfully to storm the citadel.

During the 17th century, when the southern borders of the now to the Tsardom of Muscovy Russia proclaimed pushed further to the south, lost the defenses of Verhaulinie and with them the Kremlin of Kolomna their original meaning. Especially in Kolomna developed from the mid-17th century trade and crafts, while the city's fortifications was barely maintained and rapidly fell into disrepair. Within the Kremlin wall and around the citadel originated several civilian buildings in their construction sometimes parts of the Kremlin walls were demolished in order to win bricks for construction. Only in the 1820s forbade Tsar Nicholas I decreed the demolition of Kolomna Kremlbauten, but already ten historic towers and a large part of the wall had until then been irrevocably destroyed.

The plants received today essentially give the ensemble of the Kremlin in the 19th century again. Also, some of the resultant in the 18th and 19th century buildings, which were replaced by the historic fortifications are important architectural monuments of their time dar. The Kremlin is now regarded as a landmark of Kolomna.

Architecture and monuments

The grounds of the Kremlin in Kolomna is approximately 24 acres in size. Until now receive is the western section of wall with two towers and five more today only solitary towers. The Kremlin wall, which reached nearly two kilometers in length in their original condition, 18 to 21 feet high and three to 4.5 meters thick. The height of the obtained watchtowers varies between 30 and 35 meters. Similar in Moscow each tower has a historic name. Along the western section are preserved today to see two towers:

  • Facets Tower ( Грановитая башня )
  • Marinkina Tower ( Маринкина башня )

The other five towers are located along the former southern section of the Kremlin wall:

  • Pjatnitzkaja Tower ( Пятницкая башня ) - with Durchfahrtstor
  • Burnt Tower ( Погорелая башня )
  • Semjonturm ( Семёновская башня )
  • Ascension Storm ( Вознесенская башня )
  • Yamskaya Tower ( Ямская башня )

A number of other architectural monuments located directly on the former fortress area:

  • The New Golutwiner Monastery ( Ново - Голутвинский монастырь ) was originally a Russian Orthodox monastery and was moved in the early 19th century from the Kolomna suburb Golutwin in the Kremlin, where it has since been resident in the building of the former bishop's residence. End of the 1980s the closed Soviet era monastery of the Russian Orthodox Church has been returned and is now run as a convent. The architectural ensemble of the New Golutwiner monastery built in the 17th century include the secular buildings of the former bishop's residence, which was built in the late 17th century Trinity Cathedral ( Троицкий собор ) and the classical bell tower from 1825.
  • The Brussenezer Assumption Monastery ( Успенский Брусенский монастырь ) houses more valuable buildings on its premises: The Little Assumption Church ( Успенская церковь ) with an eye-catching tent roof was built in 1552 and was at that time - just as the Moscow St. Basil's Cathedral - the dedicated to the conquest of the Kazan State by the army of Ivan the Terrible. The Exaltation of the Cross ( Крестовоздвиженский собор ) cathedral was built in the 1850s in a then popular historicist style, with allusions to the Old Russian sacral traditions. Also striking is the decorative enclosure of the monastery with neat pointed turrets as a visual complement to the Exaltation of the Cross Cathedral. The monastery was founded in 1552 and has been operational since 1997 as a convent again.
  • Similar to the Moscow Kremlin and the fortress in Kolomna has a Cathedral Square ( Соборная площадь ), whose architectural dominant of the three -domed Uspensky Cathedral ( Успенский собор ) represents. It was built in 1672-1682 on the site of a temple of the same name from 1379. North of the cathedral stands since 1861, running in the Russo- historicist style Church of Our Lady of Tikhvin ( Храм иконы Божией Матери Тихвинская ) with a tent-shaped bell tower.
  • The Kremlin of Kolomna is also home to a number of secular buildings of different eras. Even traditional Russian wooden houses have been preserved there; in one of which lived in the late 19th century, a sister of the famous writer Alexander Kuprin. Since the latter repeatedly toured there for a visit and also worked on his manuscripts, the house commonly called Kuprin House ( Дом Куприна ) is called.