Kolomna (Russian Коломна ) is a city in Russia. It is located about 110 km southeast of Moscow, in the south of Moscow Oblast, and has 144 589 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010 ). It is one of the oldest cities in the Moscow environs.
The Kolomna lying at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka has been known since 1177 as a frontier post of the Principality of Ryazan. Kolomna is located on major trade routes and so the city was the object of a bitter struggle initially the Prince of Vladimir and the Moscow princes. In 1301 it became part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Between the 13th and 16th centuries the city was repeatedly attacked by Tatars and devastated several times. Therefore Kolomna served regularly as a rallying point for the Russian troops for the military campaigns against the Tatars. The Prince Dmitry Donskoy visited here in 1380 the warriors troops on their way to the Battle of Kulikovo Pole. 1385 Kolomna was conquered unexpectedly from Ryazan princes Oleg, but arrived after only a few years back under the rule of Moscow. During standing on the Ugra the city support to the armies of the Grand Duchy of Moscow under Ivan III was .. Between 1525 and 1531 a massive Kremlin in Kolomna was built of stone, the second largest fortification after the Moscow Kremlin. The new fortress, which became a part of the then established Verhaulinie of the Moscow state, the strategic importance of the city grew. During the Time of Troubles, the beginning of the 17th century, Kolomna was occupied by Polish troops.
Later, the importance of Kolomna was due to its location on an important transport route, especially in its role as a trading city. 1775 stayed the Russian Empress Catherine II in Kolomna. Some time later, in 1778, the architect Matvei Kazakov was sent to Kolomna, to develop a general plan for the transformation of the city. 1784, this plan was adopted.
1862 Kolomna received rail link to Moscow in the wake of the construction of the Moscow- Ryazan, which gave the city the impetus for industrial development. 1863, a locomotive plant and an engineering factory were founded in the same year Kolomna was a public hospital. In 1864 a railway bridge on the Oka was opened, allowing the extension of the railway line to Ryazan. The wave of strikes during the Russian Revolution of 1905 was also supported by the workers of Kolomna.
Transport, education and culture
Today Kolomna is one of the most important industrial and scientific center of Moscow Oblast. The most important operation of the city is the diesel locomotive plant Kolomna. There are also several engineering companies, building material plants and food industry. In Kolomna, there are several higher education institutions, such as the Pedagogical Institute Kolomna, a spiritual seminar and a branch of the Military Artillery University. The city has railway connection and an inland port. For public transport, there are, among others, a private tram network. 2007 modern speed skating hall was opened in the European Championships were held in January 2008.
From built in the 16th century Kremlin of Kolomna supported by brick walls and towers which are Uspenskaja Church (built 1672-1682 ), received the bell tower (1825 ) and the 18th-century bishop of Matvei Kazakov house. In the city there is also the Bogoyavlensky Church from the late 17th century, the Wosnessenskaja Church ( built in 1799 by Matvei Kazakov ) and two monasteries from the 14th and 17th centuries.
Among the secular buildings include two built in Baroque style merchant houses and dating from the early 19th century row of shops (Russian torgowy Ryad ) remarkable.
In Kolomna, there is a literature and a local history museum.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Dmitry Dorofeev (* 1976), speed skaters
- Philaret Drozdov (1783-1867), Metropolitan
- Gennady Gudkov (* 1956), politician
- Alexei Jessin (* 1987), speed skaters
- Anatoly Larkin (1932-2005), Physicist
- Yekaterina Lobyschewa (* 1985), speed skater
- Valeri Muratov (* 1946), speed skaters
- Tatiana Orlova ( born 1956 ), actress
- Alexander Sokolov ( b. 1982 ), volleyball player
- Mikhail Tyurin (* 1960), Cosmonaut