Central Federal District
Central Russia is the name of a historic landscape and an administrative unit in Russia ( see Federal Outline of Russia). The Federal District Central Federal District was created by decree of the Russian President on 13 May 2000. Council is based in Moscow. The district itself comprises 18 federal subjects.
The region ( " Central Federal District Russia," Russian Центральный федеральный округ, Zentralny federalny okrug ) located on the western border of modern Russia. Central Russia has no natural boundaries, so the area is 600 to 800 kilometers from the nearest sea, the nearest seas are the eastern part of the Baltic Sea, the Sea of Azov and the White Sea. The Federal District Central Federal flanked on the west and the southwest of Belarus to Ukraine. In addition, there are Russian internal borders in the south to the Federal District Southern Federal District, in the east to the Volga Federal District and in the north to the Federal District North-West Russia.
Central Russia is in the East European Plain, divided into landscapes such as the Valdai Hills, Moscow ridge, the heights of Smolensk, the Russian middle plate and the Oka -Don plain. High mountains are completely absent. The highest point in the Federal District is the Gora Popova with 351 meters. The largest rivers of the total water-rich region are ( tributaries in parentheses): the Volga (Oka ), Don (Voronezh ), Dnieper ( Desna, Seim ) and the Daugava.
Geographically form from north to south different vegetation zones, starting from the taiga to the north, the mixed forest zone, the deciduous forest zone in the south and the forest-steppe. The climate is temperate continental, the average temperature in January ranges from -7 to -14 ° C and in July 16 to 22 ° C. Mineral resources are found on the territory of a total of 60 % of Russia's iron ore deposits ( Kursk magnetic anomaly ), phosphates (25% of Russian resources ), bauxite (15% of Russian resources ), brown coal, cement raw materials (25% of Russian resources ) and peat.
Historically, Central Russia formed the nucleus of the country, of which the further territorial expansion and Russian history mainly developed ( see also Golden Ring ). Thus formed before the October revolution of 1917, the region of the central part of the country, since previously Asiatic Russia was not seen as an integral part of the country but as a colony, while on the other hand Belarus and Ukraine were considered to be in Russia.
From the 7th to the 12th century, the area of East Slavic and Finno -Ugric tribes (eg Kriwitschen, Wjatitschen ) was settled. Since the end of the 10th century, the area was part of Kievan Rus. From this point, coupled with the increasing fragmentation of Kievan Rus as a result of unfavorable seniority, several principalities formed in the area of central Russia as the Principality of Vladimir, the Principality of Ryazan, the Principality of Moscow, the Principality of Smolensk and more.
After the Mongol invasion of Rus in 1240 it was from 1300 to a long-term dominance of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which managed to incorporate the neighboring principalities in his domain ( patrimony ). This process was completed by about 1500. Henceforth, the entire Russian land was governed, including its newly annexed territories over Central Russia out of Moscow. The southern parts of today's Federal District ( Belgorod, Voronezh ) came in the 16th century in the Russian sphere of influence, after the destruction of the Khanate of Kazan, Astrakhan, and the Nogai Horde. However, these areas remained long threatened by incursions of the Crimean Tatars, so here strong fortifications created to protect.
The administrative predecessor unit for central Russia formed the Moscow province, which was founded by Peter I in 1708, was changed several times territorial and existed until 1929.
Population and cities
Central Russia is a little over 37 million people in the most populous district of the Russian Federation. At the same time the circle is the most densely populated compared to the other seven federal districts. Ethnic forms the Russian population with 91.32 % (2002 ) the dominant share. Central Russia is also the only federal circuit in which there is no separate national ( sub-) republics. The proportion of the rural population is about 20 percent. About half of the total population lives in Moscow and Moscow region.
The ten largest settlements within the Federal District:
The economy of central Russia is characterized by a strong industrial and technological base with a large number of highly qualified personnel. In Central Russia are now about one fifth of all industrial regions of Russia. Here are the first industrial areas were developed in the 19th century, to which Moscow and Moscow region, Kostroma, Vladimir, Tver, Yaroslavl and Ivanovo belong. The dominant industries in the secondary sector forming machinery, light industry, chemical industry and heavy industry. In the field of mechanical engineering stand out the rocket and space industry, aerospace, radio and electronics industry, railway, manufacturing of precision machine tools and robotics. The chemical industry is represented by the production of fertilizers and organic synthetic chemistry (plastics, synthetic resins, polyester, etc.).
Additional information is found on the territory of the district national leader in the manufacture of linen, cotton, wool and silk. Also the food industry (sugar, butter, flour, grain, alcohol, candy, fruit, tobacco industry, etc. ) is highly developed.
Overall, the federal district recorded a high proportion of the national economic growth. The circle is also a leader in all key indicators of socio -economic development. The great economic importance is also reflected in a very high share of funding (about 45 %) in the federal budget.
In the field of ten highways run radially to the location in the center of Moscow to:
- M1 Belarus ( Moscow - the border with Belarus )
- M2 Crimea ( Moscow - Tula - Orel - Kursk - Belgorod - the border with Ukraine ( Kharkiv ) )
- M3 Ukraine (Moscow - Kaluga - Bryansk - the border with Ukraine ( Kiev))
- M4 Don (Moscow - Voronezh - Rostov-on- Don - Krasnodar - Novorossiysk )
- M5 Ural (Moscow - Ryazan - Penza - Samara - Ufa - Chelyabinsk)
- M6 Caspian Sea (Moscow - Tambov - Volgograd - Astrakhan)
- M7 Volga (Moscow - Vladimir - Nizhny Novgorod - Kazan - Ufa )
- M8 White Sea (Moscow - Yaroslavl - Vologda - Archangelsk )
- M9 Baltic States (Moscow - Volokolamsk - the border with Latvia)
- M10 Baltic Sea (Moscow - Tver - Novgorod - St. Petersburg)
Science and Education
Moscow is both a federal subject, the seat of the federal district and capital of the Russian Federation, is the largest center for science, education and technology in Central Russia. The development of the science sector in Moscow led to the creation of the so-called science cities Protwino, Pushkin, Chernogolovka, Dubna and Troitsk.
- Belgorod Oblast
- Bryansk Oblast
- Yaroslavl Oblast
- Kaluga Oblast
- Kostroma Oblast
Far East | North Caucasus | Northwest Russia | Siberia | South Russia | Ural | Volga | Central Russia controversial: Crimea
- Federal District of the Russian Federation
- Federal District Central Federal District