50.8540.6Koordinaten: 50 ° 51 'N, 40 ° 36' O
The Voronezh Oblast (Russian Воронежская Область / Woroneschskaja Oblast ) was created in 1934 and is located in the southwestern Russia, about 500 to 600 km south of Moscow. Administrative center is the city of Voronezh. The oblast borders the Russian oblasts of Belgorod, Kursk, Lipetsk, Tambov, Saratov, Volgograd and Rostov and on the southwest by the Ukraine.
The Voronezh Oblast is located in the center of the East European Plain, north of the Donets Basin. The Oka -Don plain and the mountain range Kalatscher - To the west of the area, the Central Russian country back, to the east extends. The northern part of the area lies in the forest-steppe zone, the southern - in the steppe zone with prevailing black soil. On the territory of this region there are 738 lakes, rivers and streams where flow in 1343 are more than 10 kilometers long. The most important river is the Don, which flows through the Oblast in north-south direction. In 530 its 1870 km total length it flows through the Voronezh area. The second most important river is the Voronezh. About 10 percent of the territory is covered with forests, the deciduous forests dominate, especially including oak, ash, maples, lindens.
On the territory of the oblast there are two state nature reserves, the Voronezh Biosphere Nature Reserve and the Choperskij nature reserve, with a total area of 35,000 hectares.
The climate is the Oblast in the zone of temperate continental climate. In winter the average temperature is - 9 ° C, with a mainly cloudy weather. The mean values in July are at 21 ° C, it dominates dry, sunny weather in often prevailing wind. The vegetation period lasts between 185 (in the north ) and 200 days ( in the south). The annual rainfall amounts to an average of 500 mm per square meter.
The area has mineral resources, including copper, nickel, titanium and phosphorite.
The industry generates as a leading industry a quarter of the regional gross domestic product, there are 22 percent of the working population is employed. In the oblast there are 5450 industrial enterprises, of these 300 belong to the large and medium-sized enterprises. Among the most important economic sectors include aerospace ( long-haul aircraft such as IL -96, regional haul aircraft such as AN- 148) and the chemical and food processing industries. The fertile black soils allow intensive agriculture. The oblast has 3812.6 thousand hectares of agricultural land Usable, including 2916.0 thousand hectares of arable land. Crops are cereals, sugar beet and sunflowers, orchards and next to it there is stockbreeding.
The Voronezh Oblast is an important transportation and logistics hub in south-central Russia due to its geographical location.
The territory of the Voronezh Oblast has been inhabited since the Paleolithic man (eg Scythians, Pechenegs and Khazars ). Since 1240, the area was within the control of the Golden Horde. After the disintegration of the Horde, the area fell to a splinter state of the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate that ruled together with the Nogai Horde large parts of the steppe and regular raids took to Russia, where many slaves were taken. After the gradual suppression of the Crimean Tatars and the further consolidation of the Moscow Grand Duchy in the 16th century, the area became part of the Russian Tsardom, the first erected border forts against the Crimean Tatars here. 1711 Voronezh capital of the province of Azov, which was renamed in 1725 in Voronezh province. Through the construction of railways in the 1860s to 1870s held in the territory of the industrialization detail. Officially, the Voronezh Oblast was formed in its current boundaries, on 13 June 1934. During World War II, a part of the area was conquered by the Germans, the front line ran along the river Voronezh. After fierce fighting, the area was liberated in 1943.
Education and Research
Higher education in the Voronezh region includes 39 universities where 133,300 students are educated. In addition, there are more than 60 scientific and research institutions.
Administrative divisions and largest cities
The Voronezh Oblast is divided into 31 municipal districts Rajons and 3, which are formed by the far the largest city of Voronezh and Borisoglebsk and Novovoronesh. Other major cities are Rossosh and Liski ( in the Soviet Union Gheorghiu Gheorghiu -Dej - Desch after ). 63.5 percent of the population lives in the 15 cities and 17 urban-type settlements, 36.5 percent in rural areas.
See also: List of cities in the Voronezh Oblast