53.489.85Koordinaten: 53 ° 24 ' N, 89 ° 51' O
Khakassia (Russian Хакасия / transcription Chakassija, Circassian Хакас Республиказы ) is a republic in the south of the Siberian federal district administration in Russia. The capital Abakan is located at the southern end of the Krasnoyarsk dam on the Yenisei.
Khakassia is located in the south of the Siberian Federal Administrative district on the northern slope of the Westsajan Mountains at the headwaters of the Yenisei and its tributary, the Abakan. The eponymous capital Abakan is located at the southern end of the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir. In the north of Khakassia borders the Krasnoyarsk region, to the east of Tuva, on the south by the autonomous republic Altai, and in the west to the Altai region and the Kemerovo Oblast. The distance from north to south is 460 km and from west to east about 200 km. The Sayan Mountains occupies about two-thirds of the territory.
In Khakassia, there are about 1,000 freshwater and saltwater lakes, the largest being the Beljosee, the Schirasee and Itkulsee.
The climate of Khakassia is continental, with hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters with little. The average temperature in January is -18.9 ° C and in July 17.9 ° C. The average rainfall is 300-700 mm per year in the steppe zone and 1500 mm in the taiga and mountain zone.
The area of the Republic of Khakassia makes 61 569 km2 with around 0.4% of Russian territory from; the distance from Moscow to Abakan is about 4200 km.
Flora and Fauna
The forests of Khakassia are a natural treasure of the Republic. They occupy about two-thirds of the territory. About 96 % of the forests are mountain forests. The conifers determine 75 % of the total forest area, a third of which are Siberian stone pines. 20 % of Khakassia is part of the steppe zone.
There occur more than 1,500 plant species are used commercially of which about 300. On the territory of the Republic live about 45 bird and 76 mammal species, including important targets for hunting as Altai Maral, Siberian roe deer, musk deer, wild boar and Siberian ibex. Furthermore, bear, sable, fox and beaver are present; on the other hand are Dhole and snow leopard very rare animals. In the large and small rivers and lakes live 37 species of fish, including grayling, trout and sturgeon.
The Khakassian state had for centuries in hand, before he fell to the Mongols in the 13th century. Beginning of the 18th century consolidated the Russian rule in the 19th century began, the Russian immigration and the Khakassians partially converted to the Orthodox faith.
The Khakassia region was founded on 10 October 1930.
In the Stalin era, several Gulag were in the vicinity of Abakan. The prisoners were employed in the coal mining, in the promotion of gold deposits, the construction of an oil refinery and combine to logging.
After the end of the Soviet Union Khakassia in 1991 an autonomous republic within Russia.
In the 2010 census, a number of 532 403 inhabitants was determined. The titular nation, the Khakassians, are a Turkic people. They are in their republic, however, in the minority. About 80 % of the population are Russians. Smaller minorities include Russia German, Ukrainians and Tatars. A local minority are the Shors.
During the Stalin era, the ethnic relations changed greatly. A huge stream of Slavs ( Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians ) to migrated. In and after the Second World War deported German and Poland came to. Among them were also joined by many members of other Soviet peoples, including Mordvins and Chuvash (1926 688, 1970 6.949 people). From the 1980s, many immigrants from Poland and German in their home. After the Soviet Union collapsed, many people of the Soviet nationalities were introduced, returned to their areas of origin. For this reason, the population of 1989 567.000 2010 532.000 people fell to ( -6.1 %).
The official languages are Circassian and Russian. The population is committed mainly to the Russian Orthodox Church, and there are a Muslim minority.
The Republic is rich in mineral springs. Are the Shira, the Beljo, the Utitschje, the Altaiskoje, Tus, the Schunet, the Chankul and several smaller lakes for their balneologic properties known lakes.
In the capital Abakan a large industrial complex was built, in which especially the aluminum melt is significant. The energy can be produced by a storage system of the Yenisei: Sayano - Schuschensker Reservoir (1963-1988), Maina Reservoir (1979-1987) and the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir ( 1961-1967 ). Therefore, the energy generation plays an important role.
In Khakassia coal, iron, molybdenum, gold, barite and bentonite deposits are exploited. In addition, various semi-precious stones and building materials are recovered.
The Republic of Khakassia is divided into eight Rajons and five urban districts. The Rajons are a total of 6 urban and 82 rural communities assumed (as of 2010).
In Khakassia has five cities and eight settlements of urban type. In addition to the Republic capital Abakan Chernogorsk and Sajanogorsk are by far the largest cities.