Rajon (Pl. Rajons or Rajone; belarusian раён, otherwise Cyrillic район; rajons Latvian, Lithuanian rajonas, georgian რაიონი [ ɾa.i.ɔ.ni ], Azerbaijani rayon; derived from French rayon, district ') is the name of an administrative unit in many successor states of the Soviet Union, such as Azerbaijan, Georgia (until 2006 ), Latvia (until 2009 ), Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus as well as in other countries, such as Bulgaria. Rajons roughly correspond to the German districts and the Austrian districts.
Azerbaijan is divided in addition to an Autonomous Republic and eleven towns in 59 districts ( rayon; plural: Rayonlar ).
In Bulgaria, a Rajon corresponds ( Bulgarian район / rayon; plural: райони / rajoni ) a municipality. Thus, for example, the city of Sofia from 24 districts.
In the NUTS (NUTS: BG), the two Rajoni form the level 1, the six Rajoni za plan Irane (, planning regions '), the level 2
Since 2003, Moldova is divided into 32 Rajons ( Moldavian raion ) divided. They replaced the much larger nine circles ( Judet, plural: judeţe ) from. This Rajons form with the two autonomous regions and the five urban districts, the chief administrative outline level of the Republic of Moldova. Every four years the President ( preşedinte ) of the County Council ( Consiliul Rajonal ) is selected as part of the nationwide unified local elections.
In Russia, the Rajons ie the uppermost level of federal administrative regions ( oblast), regions ( Krai ), autonomous districts and autonomous republics are administrative hierarchically below the " subject level ", level. The Rajons are on the same level as urban districts ( okrug Gorodskoi ).
In two republics of Russia in the Russian Rajons be officially designated by the adopted from the national languages , slightly different terms, but have it the same status as "normal" Rajons:
- In the Republic of Sakha ( Yakutia): Ulus (Russian улус, plural улусы, ulussy; Yakut улуус, uluus, plural улуустара, uluustara )
- In the Republic of Tuva: Koschuun (Russian and Tuvan кожуун, plural russian кожууны, koschuuny, кожууннаар, koschunnaar )
Many large cities are divided into Rajons, according to districts that often each include several historic neighborhoods or quarters. ( Nizhny Novgorod Novokuznetsk, Prokopjewsk, Tambov, Vladikavkaz in Kemerovo, rajon wnutrigorodskoi ) refers; Some of these are urban Rajons across as " administrative" or " Verwaltungsrajons " ( administratiwny rajon in Chita ) or " urban Rajons ". In Moscow 125 Rajons form the second-highest administrative hierarchy level in 10 of the 12 administrative districts ( okrug administratiwny ). In St. Petersburg, provide 18 Rajons contrast, as in other large cities, the top administrative level is, are there but deviating in turn divided into 111 administrative units of another Hierarchieebe. Some cities are not in Rajons, but in okrugs ( which also "circle" or " district " means ) or variants divided thereof, for example Arkhangelsk ( "territorial districts ," territorialny okrug ), Krasnodar ( just okrug ) and Omsk ( " County " administratiwny okrug, like Moscow in the top management level).
In 1982 there were in Ukraine Rajons 479 and 121 urban Rajons.
In the Soviet Union Rajons were introduced gradually from the 1920s, while the former Ujesde ( and okrugs ) ablösten the Russian Empire. For these Rajons today, the same administrative units more, the above successor states of the Soviet Union are largely emerged. In Georgia, the territorial boundaries of many former Rajons remained, but they are no longer referred to as Rajons but form municipalities.