Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
67.975.5Koordinaten: 67 ° 54 ' N, 75 ° 30' E
The Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District (Russian Ямало - Ненецкий автономный округ / Yamal - Nenezki awtonomny okrug; Nenets Ямалы - Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук / Jamaly - Nenjozije awtonomnoi njokruk ) is an administrative unit ( Autonomous District ) in the north of Russia.
The Autonomous District is located in the northern part of the West Siberian Plain in the Kara Sea, a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. Whether the flows through the autonomous district and empties into a huge estuary, the Obbusen. Thus, the Yamal Peninsula and the Gydan Peninsula are formed. Other important rivers are Tas and Pur.
How many regions of northern Russia is settled extremely thin the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. The indigenous population accounts for only 9% and is in addition to the titular nation of the Nenets, a Samoyed people, from Khanty, Komi and Selkups, some of which have preserved their traditional way of life and culture until today. The Russians are the majority. Because of the vast oil and gas deposits hundreds of thousands of people have immigrated since 1970. While many Ukrainians, Belarusians and Moldovans returned to their homeland after the fall of the Soviet Union, many people have migrated from Azerbaijan and all parts of Russia continue. 2010 4.466 ( = 0.85 %) were also counted Kumyks and 3,479 ( = 0.67 %) Nogai.
Around 3000 BC the first settlements arose on whether and Tas, and only about 1000 years later emigrated to South Siberian Samoyed in the area and intermarried with the peoples already established as the new nation of the Nenets. First relations with the principalities in the West may already existed in the 13th century, from 1500, however, invaded Russian traders also inland before. 1595, today's capital Salechard was founded as Obdorsk of Cossacks. The Autonomous District Jamal ( Nenets " Land's End " ) exists since 10 December 1930. Governor of the Autonomous Okrug is Dmitri Kobylkin.
The most important industry is the natural gas and oil production. So dominating in the area of Nojabrsk the oil company Gazprom Neft, formerly the oligarch Roman Abramovich was Arkadyevitch. On the Yamal Peninsula has some of the largest natural gas reserves in the world. These are exploited in the last few years by the state-owned company Gazprom.
The traditional economic activities of indigenous people are reindeer herding, hunting and fishing. These are hard hit by the consequences of oil and gas production affected, because the gas and oil industry occupies large territories confiscated and destroyed or cuts grazing areas in a big way.
Today is one of the northernmost district of the industrial districts of Russia. There are intensive oil and gas exploration and huge hydrocarbon reserves, total store in the region of 90 % of gas reserves and 12 % of the available oil condensate reserves of Russia. The district has cultural and tourist resources, which are based on a partly untouched landscape and the rich cultural heritage of the indigenous peoples.
The Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District is divided into seven Rajons and six urban districts. The Rajons are a total of 7 urban and 38 rural communities assumed (as of 2010).
In the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District, there are eight cities and five settlements of urban type.