Autonomous Republic of Crimea

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea or Republic of Crimea is a controversial between Ukraine and Russia subnational authority. From the Ukrainian point of view it is as Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian Автономна Республіка Крим / Respublika Krym Awtonomna; Russian Автономная Республика Крым / Respublika Krym Awtonomnaja; Crimean Tatar Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti ) the southernmost region of Ukraine and its only autonomous republic. From the Russian perspective, it is as Republic of Crimea (Russian Автономная Республика Крым / Respublika Krym Awtonomnaja; Ukrainian Автономна Республіка Крим / Respublika Krym Awtonomna; Crimean Tatar Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti ) assigned a federal subject of Russia and the Federal District Crimea.

The (Autonomous ) Republic of Crimea has approximately 2.02 million inhabitants (2014). With an area of about 26,000 square kilometers, it takes almost the entire surface of the Crimean peninsula, only the city of Sevastopol has the status of a city with subject status and therefore not part of the ( autonomous ) republic of Crimea.

On March 11, 2014, the Parliament of the Autonomous Republic declared its independence from Ukraine, including Sevastopol, and proclaimed the Republic of Crimea. This made ​​after the holding of a referendum on March 18, an application for accession to the Russian Federation. With the ratification of the Treaty by the Russian Federation on 21 March 2014, the inclusion as Republic of Crimea was complete from the Russian perspective. International, these steps are predominantly not recognized. Since then, the status of the ( autonomous ) Republic of Crimea is controversial (see section question of the membership since 2014).


On October 18, 1921, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic ( RSFSR ), the Soviet Union was founded. It included the entire Crimea, ie the territory of the present Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol. On June 30, 1945, the autonomous status of Crimea has been lifted, it became the Crimea Oblast. By decree of 29 October 1948, the city of Sevastopol from the Crimean Oblast was spun off and was awarded the status of a separate Oblast.

By decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on February 19, 1954 on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Perejaslav the Crimean Oblast on 26 April 1954, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR ) was transferred. In terms of not Oblast Crimean city of Sevastopol belonging was carried out no explicit definition, but the Constitution of the USSR from 1978 was found in Article 77, that Sevastopol has the status of the USSR directly below the city.

As a result of a referendum on 20 January 1991, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was restored on 12 February 1991 in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In June 1991, the Crimean Tatars in Crimea for the first time organized politically. The Majlis was chosen as having authority organ of the people of the Crimean Tatars. As part of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on 24 August 1991, the existing limits for independent Ukrainian state whose part thus the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Crimea was.

On February 26, 1992, the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Crimea decided to rename in the "Republic of Crimea". The Supreme Soviet declared on 5 May 1992, the Republic of Crimea independent body, but already announced the next day Constitution of the Republic of Crimea describes them as part of Ukraine. On 21 September 1994, the Republic of Crimea became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

On 6 May 1992, the Members of the Parliament adopted in Simferopol, the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea. Following protests by the Ukrainian Parliament this Constitution of the Ukrainian legal system has been adjusted. The Crimea now had its own coat of arms and a flag.

On 16 and January 30, 1994 own presidential elections were conducted in the Crimea, where Yuri Meshkov with 72.9 % of the votes prevailed against Nikolai Bagrow. Meshkov from the Russian block declared himself president and sought a port in the Crimea to Russia. The Ukrainian government declared the elections in Crimea illegal. In the elections to the regional parliament of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea on 27 March and 10 April 1994, the Russian bloc won under the leadership of Yuri Meshkov 54 of the 98 seats. At the same time a referendum for greater autonomy of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea was held, in which 90 % of the participants spoke out for it. President Leonid Kravchuk stated that the referendum in Crimea invalid.

On 20 May 1994, the regional parliament of Crimea, the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea previous on May 6, again decided in 1992 to bring into force, although they referred to the Crimea as part of Ukraine, but relations between the Crimea and Ukraine should like sovereign countries. The next day, asked the Verkhovna Rada to take back the decision immediately. The regional parliament of Crimea lifted on 1 June 1994 to pressure the government in Kiev all decisions for independence again.

In the summer of 1994, there were power struggles between Parliament and the President. Repeatedly urged the Ukrainian parliament, the subordination of legislation in the Crimea under Ukrainian law and threatened the Crimea to withdraw their autonomous status. The " Republic of Crimea " then undertook not to make any decisions that are contrary to the Constitution of Ukraine.

On 7 September 1994, the Parliament decided in Simferopol, the powers of the President of the Crimea limit again and to send him a representative role without the right to form a government. A bill for this purpose was adopted on September 29, 1994 68 votes to 14. Earlier, the President Yuri Meshkov had on September 11, 1994 attempted to dissolve the parliament. The Meshkov appointed by Prime Minister of Crimea, Yevgeny Subarow, resigned on 15 September 1994.

On 21 September 1994, the former Republic of Crimea became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Anatoly Franchuk of the People's Party ( NP) is 1994 New Chairman of the Council of Ministers on 6 Oktrober.

By 1995, there were repeated sharp conflict between Ukraine and Russia. In addition to the division of the Black Sea Fleet was about the nationality of the peninsula. Due to the Russian-Ukrainian Friendship Treaty of 1997, the conflict could be significantly mitigated, although the reciprocal relationship does not extend free of tension. Russia has since leased a portion of the military port of Sevastopol for its Black Sea Fleet.

When held on 21 November 2004 ballot in the 2004 presidential election voted in the Crimea 82% for Viktor Yanukovych, in Sevastopol 89%. Viktor Yushchenko, victorious Gone from the 2004 elections, opposition candidate, announced on 4 May 2005 to replace the personnel of all local administrative authorities of the Crimea. The voters stood for a change of the regime and its representatives. From June 2006 to March 2010 was Viktor Plakida Prime Minister of the Crimea, and was succeeded by Vasyl Dscharty, who died on August 17, 2011 at the office. In the presidential elections in Ukraine in 2010 voted in the runoff 79% ( in Sevastopol 84%) for Yanukovych, who emerged as the winner against opposition leader Yulia Tymoshenko out of choice this time. Consequently, the trend continued, the Crimea for pro-Russian and not for pro-Western or Ukrainian- national candidate agrees. 7 November 2011 Yanukovych appointed the former Ukrainian Interior Minister Anatoly Mohiljow the new prime minister of Crimea.

During the Krimkrise 2014, the Parliament of Crimea Anatoly Mohiljow deposed on 27 February 2014 and appointed Sergei Aksenov, head of the pro-Russian party "Russian Unity", as the new Prime Minister of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Aksenov is not recognized by the Ukrainian government, as the new Prime Minister of Crimea. He himself considered in return Viktor Yanukovych continues as the rightful President of Ukraine.

Question of membership since 2014

Since the Krimkrise the international legal status of Crimea is controversial. The new pro-Russian government of the Autonomous Republic was adopted on March 11, 2014 together with the City Council of Sebastopol a declaration of independence, which implied its secession from Ukraine. They formulated the political goal of wanting instead to join the Russian Federation and therefore held on March 16, the referendum on the status of Crimea from where the inhabitants spoke out mostly for this step. The next day, therefore, the internationally unrecognized state " Republic of Crimea " was established for the transition period, both the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol included. At the same time an application for membership to the Russian Federation was asked, and was an accession treaty with President Vladimir Putin on March 18, 2014 signed. On March 21, 2014, the Russian Federation Council ratified the Accession Treaty. Thus, the entire Crimea from Russia's point of view was now part of the Federation.

From the perspective of Ukraine and also from the majority of the international community all the steps were that led to the independence and later to Russia's accession, however, international law and therefore void. However, regardless of to whom the Crimea is currently owned by international law, it is de facto uncontested under the control of Russia. The following is an overview of the current perspectives of both parties:

Ukrainian perspective

Ukraine occupies the entire Crimea as an integral part of its territory. According to its Constitution (also by referendum) that is not possible unilateral secession of individual areas. A spin-off could only be decided by a national referendum or the Ukrainian parliament.

For Ukraine, the part of the Crimea without Sevastopol is therefore still unchanged as one of their (partial sovereign ) member states under the name of Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

This view is supported by many states (in particular the "western world ", including the United States, European Union, Germany, UK and France).

Russian perspective

Russia holds the Crimea since the ratification of the Accession Treaty on 21 March for a part of its territory. The Russian government was also the only world that has explicitly recognized as a sovereign state secession Region Republic of Crimea. Russia refers back as the Crimean government on the self -determination of peoples and recognizes the referendum on the status of Crimea therefore as with international law. In addition, they point to a ruling of the International Court of Justice on Kosovo of 22 July 2010, which should confirm that the unilateral declaration of independence of parts of a State violates no rules of international law.

After the accession of the Republic of Crimea to Russia the territory was again divided into two units; both the part of the original Autonomous Republic of Crimea, which is now known only as the Republic of Crimea, as well as the city of Sevastopol each received the status of a Federation subject. In the federal structure of Russia, a separate federal district was for the two new member states also established (see Crimea ( Federal District ) ). Since 16 March 2014, the Russian visa rules apply. Travelers who visit the Crimea, therefore, need a Russian visa. Work also began with the introduction of the Russian ruble currency.

International perspective

While many states reject the referendum as illegal under international law, there are also countries that support Russia's actions (eg Kazakhstan ) or at least some sympathy for them (eg Venezuela). The PRC abstained in the UN Security Council in a case brought by the Ukraine draft resolution, which was to explain the referendum on the connection of the Crimea to Russia to be invalid, the voice. Russia vetoed.

View of international jurists

Legal scholars organize the secession of the Crimea as a violation of international law. According to Georg Nolte is in addition to the incompatibility of the referendum with the Ukrainian Constitution, in particular the fact that this was done during a Russian military action, a clear indication of their illegitimacy in accordance with the Hoover - Stimson Doctrine. According to Hans -Joachim Heintze there is basically not a derivative work of the self-determination right of secession, which could take national minorities to complete.


Since the deportation of the Crimean Tatars to Central Asia from 1944, the largest ethnic group, the Russians form in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, according to the results of the 2001 census, the distribution of nationalities they represented 58.5 % of the population. 24.4% were Ukrainians and 12.1 % Crimean Tatars. These were allowed to return to their old home in 1988.


At the 2001 census, there were 77.0 % as a mother tongue Russian at, 11.4% and 10.1%, Crimean Tatar Ukrainian.


In the ( Autonomous ) Republic of Crimea are 16 cities, of which a group of eleven each have their own county, during a four Rajon belong. The town of Alupka associated with the city of Yalta.

Administrative Divisions

The (Autonomous ) Republic of Crimea is subdivided into 14 Rajone and 11 urban districts. Some of the cities of the cities even more places are allocated, so the population figures may differ from those of the cities.

Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the ( autonomous ) Republic of Crimea

Economy and Tourism

The economy of the ( autonomous ) Republic of Crimea is mainly based on agriculture and tourism. Benefiting it is a particularly mild climate on the peninsula. Centers of tourism are the tourist resorts of Yalta, Gurzuf, Alushta, Bakhchisaray, Feodosia and Sudak. At the beach of the village Popovka, about 28 kilometers west of Evpatoria, takes place every year from July to August, the festival of electronic dance music Kazantip instead.