43.8541.7Koordinaten: 43 ° 51 'N, 41 ° 42 ' E
Located in the North Caucasus Karachay -Cherkessia (Russian Карачаево - Черкесия / Karachay - Tscherkessija, karatschaiisch Къарачай - Черкес Республика, Circassian Къэрэшей - Шэрджэс Республикэ ) since 1991, a republic in the southern part of European Russia.
Karachay- Cherkessia lies on the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains to the west and north of Mount Elbrus. With 80 percent of the largest part is located in the mountains. The southern part of the Republic occupies the up to 5000 m high mountain country of the Greater Caucasus in the north of the country is flat. Here arise from the central ridge of the Greater Caucasus, the Kuban rivers, Selentschuk and Teberda. Countless other waterfalls and streams trickle down from the glaciers in the valleys.
Karachay -Cherkessia is bordered to the west by the Krasnodar region, on the north by the Stavropol region, to the east by the Republic of Kabardino -Balkaria, in the south, along the central ridge of the Greater Caucasus, in Abkhazia and Georgia. According to the altitude, the climate is different. The climatic conditions and soils favor the north agriculture, merges into Serviced south. The climate in the north is moderately warm. The winter is short, the summers are warm, long and precipitation Empire. The average temperature in January is - 3.2 ° C and in July 20.6 ° C. In the Republic there are about 130 high mountain lakes. the glacial origin and the nature reserve Teberda.
Various minerals are found in the Republic: chalcopyrite, metal ores, gold, silver, coal, granite and marble in different colors, raw materials for the production of cement and limestone.
Population, Language and Religion
Karachay -Cherkessia is a multinational republic. Here live members of more than 80 nationalities. The population of the Republic counted 2010 477.859 inhabitants in the census. The two eponymous, ethnically unrelated peoples are the Karachay, a Turkic people who first settled here and the Circassians, a Northwest Caucasian people. Together they represent a little over half of the residents. Then came Abasinen, Nogais and, finally, added in the second half of the 19th century, and Russian Cossacks. They form the largest minority group with 33.5 % share of the population. Smaller minorities include the Armenians ( 2002:3.197 people) and the Tatars ( 2002:2.021 people).
While the karatschaische language and the language nogaische belong to the Turkic languages , the Circassian languages ( Adyghe and Kabardian ) and the Abasinische Caucasian languages. The languages of these five ethnic groups in the Republic as " national languages " official, but the official language is Russian. The majority of the population is Islamic faith, a minority belongs to the Russian Orthodox Church.
The territory of Karachai -Cherkessia belonged since the end of the first millennium BC to the state of the Alans. In the 16th to 18th century part of this area was ruled by the Khanate of Crimea. Since the first half of the 19th century, according to the Russian-Turkish Treaty of Adrian Opel from 1829, a part of the territory of modern Karachai - Circassia to Russia. On January 12, 1922, the Autonomous Region of Karachay-Cherkessia in the Southeastern Region ( Krai ) was formed; on April 26, 1926, the territory was divided into the Karatschaische Autonomous Region, the Cherkess National District and two Rajons. By a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Karatschaische Autonomous Region on 12 October 1943, liquidated and the Karachay deported for alleged collaboration with the German occupiers. The southern part of Karachay- Georgia area was annexed, united the larger northern part of the Stavropol region.
During and in the aftermath of the deportation many Karachay (50 % by some estimates ) were killed. The deportation of the Karachai, mainly to Siberia, lasted until 1957; at this time did not exist the republic. In 1957, the Karachay allowed to return and the Republic with the earlier double-barreled name and the old boundaries as Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ( ASSR ) was prepared in the inventory of the Russian SFSR again. With dissolution of the Soviet Union, it became a republic within Russia. Head of State of the Republic since 1979 as Chairman of the Soviets and 1990-92 at the same time acting as Prime Minister Vladimir Chubijew.
After the regional presidential elections in Karachay-Cherkessia in 1999 threatened the cleavage of this autonomous republic. The the more numerous and traditionally pro-Moscow Karachay inferior Circassians and Abasinen ( to a large extent Christian) want to build their own autonomous republic again, which had already existed until 1957. Head of state until 2003, President Vladimir Semyonov, then to 2008 Mustafa Batdyjew. In August 2008, Boris Ebsejew was - elected as the new President of Karachay - Circassia - on a proposal from President Dmitry Medvedev, according to the Russian Constitution. As head of government Alik Kardanow leads since 2005 the Republic ( already from 2000 to 2003 head of government).
Economy and Transport
In the Republic of the industry and agriculture are equally strong. The Republic can be divided into two areas, a more industrial north and a more marked on the primary sector south. In the north, the chemical industry, mechanical engineering and consumer goods industries are mainly located around the capital Tscherkessk. In the fertile northern plains, favored by the warm, moist climate, corn, wheat, potatoes, sunflower and sugar beet grown. More typical of the south are the wood processing industry and animal husbandry. For this, the mining of coal mining and the extraction of tin, zinc and copper ores forms the economic base in the south. Of great importance for the region are tourism and mountain sports. Widely known are the resorts Dombai, Archys and Teberda. Archys is also known for the astrophysical observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A major industry are the many rivers and mineral springs, from which partially mineral water is obtained.
The capital Tscherkessk is connected by a branch line with the North Caucasian railway. The largest part of the country is developed transport network is only by roads.
The Republic of Karachay -Cherkessia is divided into ten Rajons and two urban districts. The Rajons are 5 urban and 82 rural communities assumed (as of 2010).
The capital Tscherkessk is the only major city. Other significant settlements are Ust- Dscheguta, Karatschajewsk and Selentschukskaja. In total there are in Karachay-Cherkessia four cities and seven settlements of urban type.
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