49149Koordinaten: 49 ° 0 ' N, 149 ° 0' O
The Sakhalin Oblast (Russian Сахалинская область / Sachalinskaja oblast ) includes the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril partially claimed by Japan. Sakhalin Oblast, a Federal District is the Far East of Russia.
The Tatar Strait separates mainland Russia from Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands form an island arc of Kamchatka to the Japanese island of Hokkaidō.
The indigenous people of Sakhalin are the Niwchen, Nanai, Oroken (also Ulta, Ultimo or Uilta called ), Ultschen, Orotschen and Evenki are traditionally fishermen and reindeer herders. The population today consists mainly of Russians (84%), and there are Korean (5%, the highest share in Russia ), Ukrainian ( 4%) and other minorities. The Ainu, who lived here until 1945, were deported to Japan.
The islands were annexed by Russia in the 19th century, were long disputed between Russia and Japan. End of the 19th century, a number of labor camps were located on Sakhalin. Only in 1945 conquered the Soviet Union South Sakhalin and the southern Kurile Islands of Japan, and was formed in 1947 the Oblast in its current form, which is limited to the northern part of Sakhalin since 1932 as part of the Far Eastern Region ( Krai ) and the Khabarovsk region existed.
Capital and only major city of the oblast is Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.
Mainly in North Sakhalin oil and gas will be supported:
- Sakhalin -1 estimated at 307 million tons of oil, 485 billion cubic meters of natural gas
- Sakhalin -2 estimated at 140 million tons of oil, 550 billion cubic meters of natural gas
- Sakhalin -3 uncertain 700 million tons of oil, 1.3 trillion cubic meters of natural gas
- Sakhalin -4 estimated at 123 million tons of oil, 540 billion cubic meters of natural gas
- Sakhalin -5 estimated at 600 million tons of oil, 600 billion cubic meters of natural gas
However, their exploitation causes significant environmental problems.
Other important industries are fishing and the timber industry.
Governor of the oblast since August 2007, the former Mayor of Ocha Alexander Choroschawin, which replaced the retiring Ivan Malakhov.
Administrative divisions and cities
The Sakhalin Oblast is divided into 17 Rajons and a city circle. The only major city in the Sakhalin Oblast is the administrative center of Yuzhno -Sakhalinsk, which is also the only city circle. There are a total of 15 cities in the oblast and five settlements of urban type.