44.9543.25Koordinaten: 44 ° 57 'N, 43 ° 15' O
The Stavropol region (Russian Ставропольский край / Stawropolski krai) is an administrative unit ( Krai ) in Russia.
In the Stavropol region settlements archaeologists have discovered dating back to the 4th millennium BC. In the valleys of the rivers Jegorlyk Kuma and there are countless ancient settlements, grave hill and fortified settlements. Where now stands the city Budjonnowsk, was the time of the so-called Golden Horde, the city Madschar. It was an important city in the North Caucasus in the 14th and 15th century. In the Middle Ages numerous trade routes led through the region, including the Silk Road. Until the second half of the 18th century, this sparsely populated territories were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. With the end of the Russo -Turkish War 1768-1774 the Stavropol region became part of Russia from the Ottoman Empire. In 1777, the fortress was built at the behest of Stavropol Empress Catherine II as part of the Azov- Mozdok - line of defense, then where eight years later, the city of Stavropol was founded.
The Stavropol region was founded on 13 February 1924 as the South - East region, on October 16, it was renamed the North Caucasus region since March 17, 1937, the region was referred to as the Ordshonikidze circle, and since January 12, 1943 to today it exists under its current name.
1995 Chechen terrorists with Shamil Basayev had taken at the top in the hospital in the city Budjonnowsk 1,600 people hostage. Among them were 150 children and many pregnant women. The occupation of the hospital took six days. 106 hostages, 11 militiamen and 14 military personnel were there to die.
The majority of the approximately 2.7 million people in the Stavropol region are Russians. In addition, there large ethnic groups of the Armenians, Ukrainians and Greeks live. In recent times, the number of Dagestani peoples has increased, in particular the Dargin. The Nogai and Turkmens who live in the east and north-east of the region, are descendants of the nomadic population. This is also true for the Ossetians, the adygejischen peoples and the Abasinen in the foothills.
The main industries are mechanical engineering, energy and food industry. Agriculture is one of the most important industries of the region, it has more than 156,000 employees. In agriculture dominates the cultivation of cereals and sunflowers. A leading role of the livestock, including sheep farming, poultry farming and pig breeding. Are well developed the horticulture, viticulture and beekeeping.
Tourist significant are numerous resorts that were built at spas. These are bottled as mineral water. In the Stavropol region there are 118 health resorts and sanatoriums and rest homes 5. The most famous spa town of Kislovodsk is. The mining and processing of oil and gas is significant, as multiple pipelines of the oil fields in the south lead through the region.
The region is located in the hilly foothills of the Caucasus, the North forms the Manytsch lowlands, between the Black Sea, the Azov and the Caspian Sea. The most important river in the Stavropol region of the Kuban, which rose from the Elbrus. The region borders on nine other regions of the Russian Federation, including Chechnya, which has led frequently to armed attacks in the region. The Stavropol region lies on the border between Europe and Asia.
The Stavropol region consists largely of desert, a few hundred kilometers to the east, is one of the few pure desert areas on European soil in the Kalmyk steppe. The south is characterized by the high mountains of the Caucasus, with its pristine nature. Also in the south there are a group of 17 extinct volcanoes.
Mineral resources are available in the Stavropol region natural gas, oil and uranium. However, the special richness of the region are the thermal springs. On a relatively small area gushing more than 120 mineral springs. The Kawkasskije Mineralnye Vody near Mineralnye Vody with its mineral water springs are the most important spa region of the Russian Federation.
In the area of the region are two of the 84 protected areas of Russia: the archaeological reserve Tatarskoje Gorodischtsche not far from Stavropol and Lermontov Nature Park.
In the south, the Caucasus, the climate changes into a highland climate. The average temperature in July is 22 ° C, the actual daily temperatures often exceed 30 ° C also. In January, the average temperature of -4.4 ° C, a drop to below -15 ° C is not common, but can occur.
Administrative divisions and cities
The Stavropol region is divided into 26 Rajons and 9 urban districts. The most attractive places in addition to the administrative center of Stavropol are the four other cities Pyatigorsk, Kislovodsk, Newinnomyssk and Jessentuki, next Mineralnye Vody, Georgiyevsk, Budjonnowsk and Mikhailovsk. In total there are 19 cities and seven settlements of urban type.