63.855.8Koordinaten: 63 ° 48 'N, 55 ° 48 ' E
The Republic of Komi (Russian Республика Коми, Komi Коми Республика ) is a constituent republic of Russia in North-West Russia.
The Komi Republic is located in the extreme north- east of Europe, a sparsely populated taiga and tundra region. The landscape is predominantly flat, in the north- west lies the Timanrücken, in the east it borders the Ural Mountains. The main rivers are the Pechora and the Vychegda, a tributary of the Northern Dvina. The virgin forests of Komi are the largest contiguous forest area in Europe and since 1995 a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Komi are a Finno- Ugric people. Until the Soviet period, they and a few Nenets remained almost to themselves. From the Stalin era to the end of the Soviet Union, both the number of inhabitants as well as the ethnic relations changed dramatically. Besides deportees were members of all Soviet peoples for economic reasons in the area. The Komi were a minority in their own country. Today, Russians constitute the majority. Other significant ethnic groups are Ukrainians, Tatars, Belarusians, Russia German and Chuvash. Azerbaijani, Bashkir ( 2002 or 3149 persons), Moldavians (2002 3,447 persons), Mari, Lithuanians, Udmurt and Uzbeks also settled by the thousands. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many immigrants returned to their home regions. Therefore, the population declined from 1989 to 2010 to 349 658 people or 28%.
The official languages are Russian and Komi. The majority of the population is committed to the Russian Orthodox Church.
Composition of the population according to ethnic groups and territorial units of the Republic of Komi, according to 2010 census
The decline in the proportion of ethnic Komi in the last Zensuperiode (2002 - 2010) is particularly striking and can be explained by a progressive assimilation (including through mixed marriages with Russians, in which the children grow up mostly Russian-speaking ). Ethnic Komi represent only five of the 20 territorial units ( urban districts or Rajone ) of the Republic of Komi, the largest population group. This is solely to sparsely populated rural areas, while in the larger cities, the Russians are the largest group by far.
The Komi Republic is divided into five municipal districts and 15 Rajons ( counties ).
The most important place and currently only large city is the capital of Syktyvkar. Other major towns are Uchta, the Vorkuta known primarily as a penal colony had become, Pechora, Ussinsk and Inta.
In the late Middle Ages, the settlement of the area began with the Russians. In the Soviet Union was a Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ( ASSR of Komi ) within the Russian Federative Soviet Republic ( RSFSR ). After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, was an autonomous republic of Komi to within Russia. Head of the Republic is Vyacheslav Gaiser.
Economy and Transport
Most important transport hub of the Pechora railway from Moscow to Vorkuta. Forestry is operated in a large scale. The area is rich in mineral resources, especially coal, oil, natural gas and iron ore.