A cultural monument is in general German usage according to Duden one:
" Property, plant, considered to be evidence of a culture and [ artistic and ] is of historical value. "
From concept monument as "got [ art ] plant, which bears witness to an earlier culture", the definition of a cultural monument distinguished by the cognitive process in which the object "is considered evidence of a culture" the human being as a " [ artistic and ] historical value " was awarded. The granting of such historical value as well as public interest generally leads subsequently to official protected status of the object.
Objects that represent evidence of past cultural history, are referred to in addition to cultural monument as a memorial, cultural or heritage ( as in world heritage or cultural heritage).
Historical concept formation
In the first half of the 19th century antiquity private clubs came together that the goal of " exploration, conservation, explanation and illustration of historic or artistic monuments of important patriotic prehistoric " gave himself as the Royal Founded in 1825, the Kingdom of Saxony Saxon Association for the Study and preservation of patriotic antiquities (see also development of cultural heritage protection in Saxony).
The concept of ( patriotic ) antiquities was divided in the course of the engagement in the second half of that century inventorisation: The inventories commissioned the architectural and art monuments (eg Richard Steche and Cornelius Gurlitt: Descriptive representation of older architectural and art monuments of the Kingdom of Saxony. 41 vols, Meinhold, Dresden 1882-1923 ) separated between the preserve monuments and buildings ( monuments such as churches, castles, mansions, etc.) and the worth preserving art treasures and artistic monuments ( art monuments such as church furnishings, statues and equestrian statues ). However, this division was not obligatory. As recently as 1900 commissioned the first day on Monuments and art historian Georg Dehio with the task of a Germany -wide manual of all objects worthy of protection (short inventory) to create the manual of German art monuments.
In 1902 the first German codified Monument Protection Act was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Hesse with the law, the historic preservation concerning. In addition to the sections that deal with monuments and historic buildings owned by individuals, it also introduces the concept of natural monuments. In 1919, the Weimar Constitution size and allocation of preservation described as follows: " The monuments of art, history and nature as well as enjoy the scenery the protection and care of the state. "
The concept of a cultural monument played later on, so in the long title of the 1934 adopted, but the Weimar period from 1926 incurred Saxon Homeland Security Law: Law for the Protection of artistic, cultural and natural monuments, which cultural monument probably the term scope of the monument of the history of the Weimar Constitution adopted.
The GDR anchored in 1952 with the nation-wide regulation for the conservation and maintenance of the national monuments of culture the concept of cultural monuments, but it managed in 1961 with the Ordinance on the promotion and protection of monuments again, since this was based on another National definition of culture after the Wall ( see also listed in the GDR ).
Use the preambles cultural monument and memorial
The general German usage against which all referred to evidence of past cultural history in the world as a monument, a cultural monument or as a heritage and therefore of worth preserving natural objects is different ( natural monument ), the legal German technical term cultural monument is only in ten of the sixteen German states monument protection laws defined or used while using the other six the term monument. Since there is no federal conservation law, cultural monument is not in Germany defined by a conservation law. The sciences of heritage conservation use the term more in the sense of everyday language, without legal intricacies countries.
The term cultural monument connects the culture that differentiates itself with nature and can also be found in cultural heritage, with the monument to form a word that created itself without further explanation from the monument, to commemorate a person or an event was to distinguish. In this sense, cultural monument serve as one of the two preambles at least for the bound to the Tangible evidence of past cultural history.
Czech Republic still uses the term in National Cultural Monument ( Národní kulturní památka ), in Albania there are the monuments Kulturore, while many other nations use different terms, see Foreign language names for monuments of past cultural history.
Memorial Nursing use as monument
After counting of the National Committee for preservation in early 2008 there should have been 748 105 565 696 monuments and archaeological monuments. However, exact figures can not be given, as to the different laws of the German states objects can be quite monuments, even if they were not recorded as such.
On the website of the authorities responsible for conservation and historic preservation Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and Media, these figures are reproduced as follows: "Experts estimate that there are approximately 1.3 million cultural monuments are located in Germany. Individual monuments to entire historic centers ", where is the, " to assist in the preservation of monuments, archaeological sites and historic parks and gardens that make an outstanding way national events or the development of the German cultural landscape significantly. " nationwide program " National valuable cultural monuments " presented Several paragraphs later is related to the However, National Committee of the term " building culture elles heritage " is used and pointed out that the proposed measures are used to rehabilitate " important national monuments ."
The German Foundation for Monument Protection used in about half of all cases the term cultural monument, in the other half of the cases monument. Dividing or classifying monument types can be used independently of national legislation, as it is properly and professionally necessary.
Monument Legal definition of cultural heritage in Germany
Cultural monument as a generic term is used in the long titles of the following German conservation laws: Law on the Protection of Cultural Monuments (Baden- Württemberg), Law on the care and protection of cultural monuments (Bremen), Law on the Protection of Cultural Monuments (Hesse), state law to protect and maintenance of cultural monuments ( Rhineland -Palatinate ), law on the Protection and Care of Historic Monuments in Saxony, law on the Protection of cultural Monuments (Schleswig -Holstein) and Thuringian law for the care and protection of cultural monuments. Four of the 16 German state law titles call the protected object memorial and a further five state laws in the title laws use the term conservation.
In the legal text itself using the ten conservation laws of Baden- Württemberg, Bremen, Hesse, Lower Saxony, Rhineland -Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony -Anhalt, Schleswig -Holstein and Thuringia the preamble cultural monument, during the six federal states of Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Hamburg, Mecklenburg- Vorpommern North Rhine- Westphalia and use the generic term monument.
Austria does not use the generic term cultural monument, but lies down in the Federal Law on the protection of monuments because of their historical, artistic or other cultural significance on Monument fixed.
The technical terms formed after Denkmalart ( monument, archaeological site, etc. ) are not used equally in all the German states in the memorial laws. Some of the defining subdivision terms of the monument categories are also provided in the relevant scientific disciplines: While in Baden- Württemberg no separate monument category is called, Saxony lists nine different types of objects for the listed structures, which all originate from the respective scientific disciplines.
Monument overviews in German-speaking
- Lists of the objects listed in Germany
- Lists the protected properties in Austria
- Collection of cultural goods and listed buildings in Switzerland