As light, fachsprachlich occasionally " Luminaire " ( English / French for light), an object is called, which serves the lighting and to have a recording device for lights or a permanently installed bulbs contains ( as an LED module ).
Lamps are available in various types such as ceiling lights ( as ceiling arch and ceiling crown), wall lamps (as light beams ) Table lamps ( such as desk lamps ), lampposts, street lights. They may be fixed or mobile. You can also be operated with gas electrically from the power grid, with accumulators or batteries, however.
In common parlance, lights are usually referred to as lamps, technical terminology, however, the lamp is the light source, for example, the light bulb ( colloquially " light bulb " ) or the fluorescent lamp.
Electric lamps with replaceable bulbs are specified in addition to the nominal voltage of a maximum electric power, so as not to exceed the maximum current and the maximum heating. Luminaires for discharge lamps (excluding energy saving lamps with integrated ballast) usually contain a on the lamp ( the lamp ) matched ballast and - if necessary - an igniter. Such lamps are only suitable for certain types of lamps. The use of improper bulbs is usually prevented by the base used or the design of the lamp. Examples are linear fluorescent luminaires for fluorescent lamps, LHGL tubs, road lighting, and construction and stadium lighting.
Other characteristics of lights are their radiation ( directivity ) and the minimum distance combustible objects. Both incandescent and gas discharge lamps in the operating position is sometimes prescribed.
Furthermore, the luminaire efficiency is specified for a light. It is the ratio between the light emerging from the luminous flux and the luminous flux of all lamps within this light fitting. This value, thus describes what portion of the emitted light within the light can actually be used outside; typical values for conventional lights between 50-70 %, led spotlights achieve due to the directional light emission values over 90%. According to EN 13032-2 this size is also known as LOR ( Light Output Ratio) describes. In addition, the components DLOR (Down Light Output Ratio ) and ULOR can be specified ( Upper Light Output Ratio ). Thus the distribution of the luminous flux of a lamp in the top and bottom half-space is illustrated.
In high quality lighting reflectors ( sometimes in conjunction with optical lens systems), as precisely as possible in order to draw much of the emitted light from the lamp to be illuminated surfaces and thereby reduce energy consumption of lighting systems. Also important is a good cooling of the ballasts, as this also reduces the power consumption and the life expectancy of the (electronic) ballasts may be significantly extended. The efficiency of lamps is temperature dependent, so that a lamp may cool the lamps used ( indoors through ventilation openings ) or keep warm ( in outdoor areas for fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps through closed ) should be. In 2012, revenues of lights and lamps in Germany for a total of 3.66 billion euros.
Luminaires with reflectors against glare
Industrial luminaire with impact protection
Bedside lamp with lampshade