Matvei Gusev Matveyitch (. . Russo Матвей Матвеевич Гусев, scientific transliteration Matvej Matveevič Gusev; * 16 Novemberjul / November 28 1826greg in Vyatka (now Kirov), † April 22, 1866 in Berlin) was a Russian astronomer. According to him, the crater Gusev is named on Mars.
He ran at the University of Kazan physico- mathematical studies, from which he graduated in 1847 with honors. His first job was as a curator at the Museum of the University. In 1848 he has already made public lectures on physics for medical students. During the holidays, he determined the geographical location of his home city of Kirov.
In 1850 he went to the Pulkovo Observatory to study astronomy, and already in 1851 he accompanied the expedition of Kowalski and Popoff on the Sea of Azov to watch with them there a solar eclipse.
In August 1852 he became an assistant at the Observatory of Vilnius. The director at the time was George Albert of foot and in 1854 George Thomas Sabler ( 1810-1865 ), with whom he was acquainted ( After the death of foot was Gusev of January 6, 1854 to June 6 director of the observatory ).
In 1857 he was able to undertake a multi-year study trip abroad, which led him particularly to Berlin, Altona and Gotha. 1859/1860 he was in England and learned from Warren de la Rue astrophotography. He got out of de la Rue photographs of the moon and an accurate analysis of the images led him to the conclusion that the moon is an ellipsoid with major axis in the direction of Earth. It is one of the earliest examples of the photo survey of celestial bodies. He published in 1860 in the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences His results. In the same year he founded a Russian journal of physics and mathematics, which developed into a major magazine but had to be set in 1863 in the course of the riots in Poland.
It was in 1865 Successor of Sabler as director in December. Soon after, however, he became seriously ill and went in 1866 for an operation to Berlin, where he died in April 1866. In July 1866 took Pyotr Smyslov ( 1827-1891 ) the Office.