Mediatization ( " Mittelbarmachung " ) is a term from the history of the Holy Roman Empire. In the kingdom there were territories whose men as secular authority had only the emperor and thus were rich immediately. Others were subject to a higher ranking in the Ethics Code sovereign. Mediatization was said that a previously rich immediate area was indirectly, was thus placed under a sovereign.


It was very early on and mighty imperial estates succeeded smaller Mitstände - especially if their possessions were included in theirs - to bring in such a dependency. With the Imperial Diet of 1803 continued the mediatization rich immediate objects into larger scale. This was assigned to a number of German princes as compensation for the loss of their possessions on the left bank of the Rhine to France certain hitherto rich immediate areas. These were characterized in, albeit somewhat modified, subjects ratio.

45 of the 51 remaining free imperial cities were incorporated mediated and neighboring principalities. Only Augsburg, Nuremberg, Frankfurt, Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck retained the status with reduced rights. Of the (up to 1789) 300 territories with kingdom stand shaft and about 1,400 remained without a kingdom estates of only 39 territories with kingdom stand shaft. Augsburg and Nuremberg were mediatized 1805/1806 of Bavaria. With the Act of Confederation of 1806 was abolished almost all noble lords and poor counties.

The German Federal Act of 1815 took over corresponding provisions of the Act of Confederation, but left the mediatized princes as Standesherren some special rights (among the lower courts ). This remained so until the Revolution of 1848/ 49 and a few beyond. The mediatized princes and counts were the ruling houses in the rank equivalent (see equality ) and thus belonged to the high nobility. After 1815 there were only four free cities: Hamburg, Bremen, Lubeck and Frankfurt am Main.

Today the ( interest ) representation of national actors is understood by the State under mediatization in international law.

Mediatizations due to the Act of Confederation

The media coverage was its legal basis in Article 26 to 28 of the Act of Confederation. In Article 26 was described that the Confederation of the Rhine should receive full sovereignty over their territories. These were referred to in Article 26 legislation, supreme court, supreme police and the right to troops lineup.

In Article 27 was described which rights should retain the mediatised: The legal title to their domains as patrimonial or private property, all of domination and feudal rights that do not belong essentially to the sovereignty. This included the right of the lowly and intermediaries civil and criminal jurisdiction, the forsteilichen judiciary and police, hunting and fishing, mining and smelting works, tithes and other similar rights, the right of patronage and the like, and flowing from these domains and rights income (eg penalties in fines ).

These rights were sold, but the respective country gentleman had a right of first refusal.

About the question of the interpretation of these rules was legally controversial. While the Confederation of the Rhine interpreted the concept of sovereignty far, the mediatised interpreted their role as that of a sub- rule. In practice, the position of the mediatised could not prevail. Their efforts therefore directed to keeping their legal positions open and focused in the following negotiations on economic aspects.

The implementation of the mediatization was carried out by the military occupation of the mediatized territories in coordination with the French military by the troops or police forces of the federal princes. The annexation was made official with seizure patents and the officials and residents were sworn in on the new authorities and had to pay homage to this.

The future role of the mediatised was partially regulated by laws (eg in the Kingdom of Bavaria with declaration of 19 March 1807 in the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Act of March 20, 1807 or in the Grand Duchy of Hesse Law of 1 August 1807), partially met the Confederation of the Rhine individual agreements with the respective mediatised as in the Duchy of Nassau.

The regulations that were in the result are relatively uniform, were divided into four areas.

The last point led to most disputes between landlords and mediatised ..

Mediatized Counts and royal houses

In Gotha court calendar ( for short "Gotha" ), the contents of today the Genealogical manual of the aristocracy (Band series princely houses), corresponds to different departments were conducted.

  • Division One: all ruling (now part formerly ruling ) European sovereigns ( Première game - Généalogie des Maisons souveraines ).
  • Division Two: the mediatised the Holy Roman Empire ( Deuxième game - Généalogie des Maisons seigneuriales médiatisées en Allemagne qui ont les droits d' égalité avec les maisons de naissance souveraines ). This had, according to the German Federal Act, the equality with the houses of the First Division, as they too once - had sovereign reigns - loose within the Reich Association.

The following houses belong to the Second Department:

  • Abensperg and Traun
  • Arenberg
  • Aspremont Lynden -
  • Auersperg
  • Bentheim
  • Bentinck
  • Bretz Home †
  • Castell
  • Colloredo
  • Croÿ
  • Dietrichsteinplatz †
  • Erbach
  • Esterházy
  • Fugger
  • Fürstenberg
  • Giech †
  • Harrach
  • Hatzfeldt Wildenburg †
  • Hohenlohe
  • Isenburg
  • Kaunitz - Rietberg †
  • Khevenhüller
  • Königsegg
  • Kuefstein
  • Leiningen
  • Leyen †
  • Limburg- Styrum
  • Lobkowicz
  • Löwenstein -Wertheim
  • Looz - Corswarem
  • Metternich - Winneburg †
  • Neipperg
  • Oettingen
  • Orsini -Rosenberg
  • Ortenbourg
  • Ostein †
  • Pappenheim †
  • Platen Hallermund
  • Pueckler Limpurg
  • Quadt - Wykradt
  • Rechenberg- Roth lion
  • Rechteren
  • Salmon
  • Sayn -Wittgenstein
  • Schaesberg
  • Schönborn
  • Schoenburg
  • Schwarzenberg
  • Sinzendorf
  • Solms
  • Stadium †
  • Starhemberg
  • Sternberg - Manderscheid
  • Stolberg
  • Thurn and Taxis
  • Toerring
  • Trauttmansdorff
  • Waldbott of Bassenheim
  • Waldenburg
  • Wartenberg -Roth †
  • Wied
  • Wurmbrand - Stuppach

† extinct in the male gender