Mesopotamia (theme)

Mesopotamia (Greek Μεσοποταμία ) was the name of a Byzantine theme in today's Turkey. It is not to be confused with Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, or the Eastern Roman province of Mesopotamia. The Byzantine theme was located between the rivers Arsanias (today Murat ) and Çemisgezek.


The theme was probably 899-911 when Emperor Leo VI. (reigned 886-912 ) appointed the former strategos of the theme of Charsianon named Orestes to his commander. The majority of the issue turned out the former Armenian Principality Takis, which was ruled by a certain Manuel. Manuel and his sons were persuaded to give up their property rights, for which they were compensated with land within the empire. The Armenian- populated districts Keltzene ( deducted from the topic of Chaldia ) and Kamacha ( part of the theme of Koloneia ) were connected to form the new theme this principality.

Although Emperor Constantine VII (reigned 913-959 ) indicates that Mesopotamia was previously a Kleisoura, there is evidence that the subject previously held a more important position. The seal of a " Spatharios and strategos of Mesopotamia " has been dated to about 810, indicating at that time the existence of a short-lived, eponymous theme. The seal of a fairy tale tour with the Armenian name Mousilikes is dated to about 870.

It is therefore possible that Mesopotamia was established in the 9th century as Turma a neighboring theme, although it was in fact an independent Armenian principality.

Strategists of the topic were appointed throughout the 10th century, they coexisted with the new post of " Doux of Mesopotamia " ( set about 975 ). Unlike the strategos of Doux had no fixed theme, but controlled the center of the Byzantine eastern frontier. In the 11th century, almost all of Mesopotamia Doukes Armenians, for example, Gregorios Magistros and his son. After the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 tried Emperor Michael VII (reigned 1071-1078 ) to restore the Byzantine supremacy, the area fell but quickly to the Seljuks.