Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes (Greek Μιχαὴλ Ζ ' Δούκας Παραπινάκης, * 1059, † ca 1090 ) was Byzantine emperor from 1067 to 1078, but in fact ruled until 1071 he was with Maria of Alania, the sister of King Giorgi II. married. Georgian.
Michael was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Makrembolitissa. Shortly after his birth he was made co-emperor ( symbasileus ). He succeeded his father after his death on May 21, 1067 nominally on the throne, but initially stood together with his youngest brother Constantius under the tutelage of his mother, who exercised the de facto rule. At the beginning of 1068 married Eudocia the successful military Romanos Diogenes, who aufrückte as co-emperor and de facto regent. At the same time Michael's brother Andronikos has now also included in the ruler College. On October 24, 1071 Michael was appointed by his uncle, the Caesar John Doukas, made the sole ruler. His son Constantine Ducas Porphyrogenitus born in 1074, he rose to co-emperor.
Michael was well educated and interested in both music and geometric problems as well as for philosophy, probably under the influence of his teacher, Michael Psellos, one of the most eminent scholars of his time. The chronicler John Skylitzes ( 856, D) for such interests, however, nothing but contempt: "He (the Emperor ) wasting his energy in the design and anapaestischer worse iambic verses and so ruined his kingdom ... "
Michaels weakness and greed of his ministers were disastrous for the Empire, which was already threatened and attacked at this time from all sides. 1071, even before his accession, the last possession was in the West Bari, on the Italian peninsula, was lost to the Normans, while in the east resulted in the defeat at the Battle of Manzikert in the loss of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks, sponsored by the anarchy in the army. A wide strip of Asia Minor in 1074 could not be defended against the Seljuks.
These disasters were partially offset by the suppression of a Bulgarian revolt (1072-1077), but which generated widespread dissatisfaction. There were plundering the Pechenegs and Hungary on the northern border. 1078 rose simultaneously two generals Nikephoros Nikephoros Bryennios and Botaneiates, the latter was proclaimed on January 7th to rival emperor and marched three months later in Constantinople Opel. Michael abdicated in favor of his brother Constantius from - who could not stand up to Botaneiates however - and retreated to the studio monastery. He later became Metropolitan of Ephesus.
His surname Parapinakes ( "minus a quarter " ) referred to the fact that he led, at the same price to sell only three -quarters of the amount of wheat to be the prevailing inflation justice and thus to save the budget. Therefore, the monetary devaluation, which at that time was as great as the increase in the price of wheat, 25 percent agreed.