Romanos IV Diogenes
Romanus IV Diogenes (Greek Ρωμανὸς Δ ' Διογένης, † 1072 ) was Byzantine Emperor from 1068 to 1071.
Romanos came from a respected Anatolian noble family and was governor of Serdica (now Sofia). His military career began under Emperor Constantine X, where he distinguished himself in battle against the Pechenegs. In 1067 he was accused of having participated in a conspiracy against Constantine X., appointed by Konstantin Opel and sentenced to death. The sentence was then converted into exile and abolished after Constantine's death on May 21, 1067.
In his first marriage he was with Anna, daughter of Alusian, Tsar of the Bulgarians from the house Komitopuli married. With her he had a son, Constantine Diogenes, but who died early. After the death of Constantine X. in 1068 he married his widow Eudocia and was elevated to co- emperor. The three sons of Constantine, Michael, Constantius and Andronicus were involved in the government, while the influential family of Dukas was in opposition to him. Two other sons of the imperial couple, Leon and Nicephorus Diogenes, who came to the world in 1069 and 1070, advanced after her birth also to Mitkaisern.
Romanos struggled initially victorious against the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor, but was defeated in 1071 at the Battle of Manzikert of Sultan Alp Arslan and captured ( by Valerian he was the second emperor in the Roman-Byzantine history, this happened to ). Against the payment of ransom and a peace treaty, he was soon released. Narrated following dialogue between the two rulers is:
In the meantime, however, his political opponents had the son of Constantine X, Michael VII lifted to the throne. Romanos tried to tackle him, but was defeated and taken prisoner. He was tortured and eventually blinded end of June 1072; are three times a red-hot iron, he was thrust into the eye socket. According to a report by Michael Attaliates ignited the wound was infested with maggots that " fell off the face " to him. Romanos was exiled to the Greek island of Proti, where he died a few days later from the effects of the injury.
The completed Romanos contract was no longer recognized after his fall from the Seljuks. As a result, conquered the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I. under the son of Alp Arslan, large parts of the then Byzantine Anatolia.