- The Little Horde
- The Middle Horde
- The Great Horde
Middle Horde ( kasach. Орта жүз / Orta Juez " medium Schüs ") was the name of a Kazakh tribal federation of the 16th century.
Starting from the tsarist Russia were also mentioned by other Europeans, the Middle Horde in the 18th and 19th centuries falsely Mean Kirghiz Horde. This came about as the former Russia wanted to distinguish the Kazakhs of the Slavic Cossacks (Russian Казак / kazak ). So they called the Kazakhs as initially as " Kazak - Kyrgyz ". From 1917 to 1920, the territory of the Middle Horde Kazakh Alash -Orda State belonged.
Scope and tribal structure
Like all Central Asian nomadic empires was determined by no fixed and clearly defined borders the territory of the Middle Horde. The middle testicle covered the north, the northeast and the center of today's Kazakhstan. The members were formed from nomadic tribes. So included, among others, the following clans of the Middle Horde: Argyn, Kirei, Naiman, Qongrat, Qipcaq and yak. The clan names refer mainly to older Turkish and Mongol tribes, whose remains were integrated. A loose suzerainty exercised the kasachischsprachigen areas that today in Russia ( Altai Krai and Altai Republic ) are located.
1509 founded the Dschingiskhanide Qasym Khan the independent Kazakh Khanate. This fell apart after 1518 in three appanages (Part dominions ), from which, among others, also gave rise to the Middle Horde. Her princes acted mostly as a ruler of the neighboring Great Horde. But the princes of the Great Horde often appear as lords of the Middle Horde, so that a clear demarcation between the two khanates among themselves is difficult.
In the 18th century it was the first conflict with the Slavic settlers and to the east adjacent Western Mongolian Dzungars. In the fight against the latter with Abu'l- Hayr (reigned 1717/28-1748 ) was elected a Khan of the Lesser Horde princes of the Middle Horde. Given the devastating attacks Dzungars, whose princes also ableiteten of Genghis Khan, the Middle Horde 1740 presented voluntarily Russian protection. So the princes of the Little Horde were regarded as vassals of the Russian Tsars.
Between 1795 and 1806 asked a number of clan leaders from the Tsar 's permission to depose the unpopular of them Vali Khan (r. 1781-1818/9 ) to be allowed. In order to create a counterweight to Vali, was used in 1812 by the Tsar with Bökey Khan a co-regent of the Middle Horde.
1822 the Middle Horde was dissolved and placed under the direct direct management of Russia. It was quickly started to make large parts of the Kazakhs settle down and to offer the pasture so that you no longer need to settlers. In response, began between 1825-34 under the grandchildren Abylai Khan, Sars Chan Kasymow and Ubaidullah Walichanow, insurrection in the territory of the former Middle Horde ( 1825-34 ). A little later took over Kenisari (r. 1837-46/47 ), another grandson Abylais, the role of a revolutionary leader.
Well-known princes of the Middle Horde in the 18th and 19th centuries
- Tawke Khan 1680-1715/8
- Bolat Khan 1698/1718-1729/31 ( son Tawkes )
- Semeke Shah Muhammed 1719-1731 (? May be a synonym for Bolat Khan)
- Abu'l- Hayr (reigned 1717/28-1748, actually Small Horde)
- Abu'l Muhammed 1729/31-71 ( son Bulats, retired in 1750 politically back )
- Baraq and Kuchuk 1731-1750 ( unsecured origin, distant relationship )
- Abylai 1731/71-81 ( unsecured origin, distant relationship ) Bolat from 1748 ( son Abu'l Muhammad, Kirei Sultan )
- Abulfaiz ( son Abu'l Muhammad, fled in 1775 to the Russians )
- Dair ( son Baraqs protested in 1771 when the Russians )
- Abdullah 1781 ( son Abylais )
- Vali Khan 1781-1819 ( son Abylais )
- Several rivals, especially in the last years of life
- Yeraly about 1791-94 ( son Abu'l- Hayrs, Kirei Sultan )
- Buqai, appointed by the Tsar as a co-regent Vali Khan 1812 ( grandson of Abu'l- Hayrs )