# Modulor

The Modulor (French Moduler for ger proportion scheme) is a by architect and painter Le Corbusier ( 1887-1965 ) developed in the years 1942-1955 Proportions system and represents the most significant modern attempt of the architecture a in line with people -oriented to give mathematical order. He stands in the tradition of Vitruvius.

The 1948 published Modulor is counted among the most important theories of the history of architecture or architectural theory. In Modulor 2 (published in 1955) Corbusier described the application of the measurement gauge, which he has placed his entire architectural production based. He wanted to give a human scale and at the same time an objective order of architecture.

## System

The system is based on the human dimensions and the golden section. First Corbusier took 175 cm, 183 cm in 1950 (equivalent to six feet ) to a human scale. This assumed default size of the human body is the starting value of a geometric series of dimensions, each communicating with one another in the proportion of the golden section. This is the so-called Red Series: .., 183, 113 ( navel height ), 70, 43, 27 cm, .. By doubling the values of the red series creates the blue series: .., 226 ( body size with an outstretched arm ), 140, 86, 54 cm ..

## Application

The first major application of the Modulor is found in the living unit of Marseille ( Unité d' Habitation in Marseille also called ), which was built entirely by Modulor dimensions. More units can be found in Firminy, Briey -en- Forêt, Nantes and Berlin. However in Berlin was allowed by the rules of social housing in many cases the Modulor system of measurement can not be used - Le Corbusier withdrew completely from this project back then. The measurement system was applied also in many other designs Corbusier.

An example of the Modulor is found in the monastery of La Tourette. There are 100 cells for the monks living there - each of these cells has a ceiling height of 2.26 m and a width of 1.83 m.

## Criticism

Critics of the system have pointed out that the standard measure adopted by Corbusier to the height of the human body is not based on anthropometric observations and hence the suspicion may arise that it had been selected from a mathematical convenience. In addition, there is criticism that the female body in Le Corbusier's scheme does not matter. The dimensions are hard to remember.