National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ( NACA ) was a U.S. governmental organization focused on the basic research in aviation; a direct predecessor of the later NASA. Already established in 1915, they should coordinate the innovations in aircraft and engine sector and put it on a scientific basis. The insights gained were asked the American aviation industry. The best-known developments, which go back to NACA research, are optimized airfoils ( NACA profiles ), the introduction of the retractable landing gear, new hull shapes for supersonic flights, quiet jet engine technology and above all an aerodynamic radial engine cover ( NACA hood ).
For this purpose, entertained the NACA three national laboratories in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and the aircraft industry. The first wind tunnel of the NACA was formed in June 1920 in operation. It was to be a relatively simple system, the results were not satisfactory. In March 1923, the VDT (Variable Density Tunnel ) was put into operation, the world's first wind tunnel, who worked with different air densities. Mid-1940s was the first high-speed wind tunnel at Langley Research Center will be put into operation. In the early 1950s this was expanded for the first supersonic wind tunnel.
In the postwar years the NACA watched with interest the experiments with rocket motors on Wallops Iceland, Virginia. This was done but only as regards the possibility to incorporate them in aircraft and attack missiles to break the sound barrier.
Similarly, the V2 test launches at White Sands, New Mexico the "Paper Clip" group were spotted by Wernher von Braun. Also, the results of which, for example, the heating of the missile body were discussed and evaluated only in relation to the aircraft.
In the ( emergency ) medicine using the - originally developed for the assessment of casualties following aircraft accidents - NACA scheme for assessing the severity of injury or illness.
From 1947 to 1958, Hugh L. Dryden, Director of NACA.
The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, the NACA was transferred to NASA.