Plant tissue culture
Under the Herbal tissue culture refers to all methods of cloning of plant cells for certain purposes under in vitro conditions. It makes use of the principle of each plant cell totipotency advantage. The aim is to produce from an explant (usually a piece of plant tissue ), a complete and genetically identical plants (clones ). Here, the cells of the explant proliferate in a sterile environment in a nutrient medium with the addition of plant hormones, light, and form part of a Adventivorganogenese roots and leaves from.
The Plant tissue culture is an important component in the phytoremediation and Pathogenfreiheit of plants for the mass propagation of plants that are either difficult with conventional propagation methods ( for example, the most representative of orchids), or let grow economically in large quantities by the plant tissue culture ( for example, African Violets ). In many plants, the plant tissue culture is the only way to pathogen (virus, bacteria) to produce seedlings. Another field of application is in plant breeding where there may be overlap with the single plant cell culture here.
First, the explants must be disinfected to kill any adhering fungi and bacteria. To this end, one often uses sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide or mercury chloride. The plants are then placed on an individually suitable nutrient medium. In the following days the vessels have scored visually and sorted in bacterial or fungal growth and are discarded.
Callus formation (proliferation )
Some cultured tissue are slow in their growth. For them, there are two options: ( i) the optimization of the culture medium, (ii ) growing healthy and fast growing tissue or varieties. Necrosis could spoil cultured tissue. In general, plant species are different in tissue culture necrosis. Thus, by cultivating healthy and vigorous growing varieties (or tissue) can be controlled.
To increase the resulting from the Primärexplantat plants are placed on specific solid nutrient media such as Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). These include not only the usual macro, micro nutrients and various vitamins and phytohormones auxins or cytokinins in the form of. It can also pieces of tissue such as callus are grown in a liquid medium and then transferred to a solid medium for organogenesis. Especially by means of selection and dosage of individual phytohormones can then be controlled organogenesis in vitro plantlets so that plants in the in vitro culture can be propagated to some extent.