In the private transport of road users used to him that becomes available transportation (car, bicycle, motorcycle, cart, boat, snowmobile, aircraft, company car, service bike, horse ) or sports equipment ( roller skates, inline skates, sailboat, glider, etc. ) and he goes on foot (see foot traffic ), where he can essentially free to decide on times and ways ( engl. choice rider ). Private transport is contrary to public transport and private industry not public transport (the transport is, for example, excursion boats, used as a tourist cable cars, ski lifts, etc.).
For private transport (acronym IV) include in transport of non-motorized individual transport (pedestrians, cyclists, skaters, etc.) and motorized road transport (car, moped, motorcycle, RV, etc.).
Vehicles, carts and rickshaws that are rented for short-term traffic demand with riders belong, even if the user can freely determine times and means to the special forms of public passenger transport.
If the traveler in any way in its decision dependent (eg as a passenger ) this is referred to as captive rider.
Motor vehicles for individual use such as cars and motorcycles ( two wheelers, which by motor power drive to 100 % as motorcycles, scooters and mopeds ) are (acronym: MIV ) as motorized individual referred. Also quads and trikes are for individual motorized transport. The MIV gained its importance in the wake of mass motorization.
In 1955, 50 % of the transport service in West Germany were provided by car, motorbike and moped. Simultaneously, the share of public transport has declined. The mid-1960s made the city development and environmental experts about the negative effects of the MIV. The German policy was an expert opinion on the subject, which were the basic problems. However, measures have been taken only as a result of the first oil crisis in 1973, but they were soon again made it back.
In West and East Germany, the MIV developed differently. The government of the GDR took the car on, in contrast to Germany in 1954 as a consumer - you previously sought an expansion of public transport to. While in 1960 the West was already 78 cars per 1000 inhabitants, only 32 cars / 1,000 people were present in East Germany. In the late 1980s, this residue was nearly caught up, there were 1989 in the GDR 550, in Germany 610 cars per 1000 households. Note, however, that the former car of the GDR were technologically backward. Also, the traffic was much lower because the annual mileage of a car in the GDR with an average of 9300 km / year was lower than in the FRG. This depends on the one hand, together with the very cheap public transport service in the GDR, but also with lack of spare parts for cars.
Motorcycles that were as simple means of transport in the Federal Republic of meaningless since the late 1950s, were used in the GDR often. Only in 1975 there was also in East Germany more cars than motorcycles.
Effects and problems
The MIV has beside its benefits and negative effects on the environment, since it per person transported more traffic, increase environmental pressure, a significantly higher area consumption ( both in resting and in moving traffic ) and thus higher external costs than the public transport or not caused motorized individual transport. It is, therefore, point of attack of many environmental initiatives that advocate a gentle mobility. Furthermore, the quality of life is significantly impaired especially in cities through space, noise, air pollution and accidents MIV. Negative effects on traffic safety occur when the traffic density exceeds the critical for each available space threshold and it comes through congestion to reduce the flow of traffic. This is in urban areas the rule. In addition, the use of a car is becoming less important as a status symbol, especially since spread of the Internet and mobile communication devices. All this suggests that the classical MIV will be displaced in the long term with its own private vehicle by other forms of mobility. Since the 1990s, a sharp increase of car sharing and car rental can be observed.
Costs for road users
- Fixed costs: Vehicle acquisition (purchase price, lease rate, credit rate )
- Fixed vehicle parking (garage, car park )
- Car Tax
- Legally prescribed technical inspection (TÜV, " Pickerl " )
- Fuel costs
- Wear and tear (tires, brakes, bearings )
- Parking fees go
- Covered by insurance, private accident costs to be paid
Cost to the economy
- Road construction costs, road maintenance costs
- Follow-up costs of environmental pollution by the MIV
- Land consumption costs
- Land net depreciation costs ( = Plot devaluation by road - plot appreciation by road )
- Limiting the mobility of non-motorized road users or users of public transport when these hindered or restricted by the MIV
- Accident costs
- Scarcity value of streets and public parking lots ( congestion charges, parking search time costs)
- Time costs of road users
Are the economic costs of MIV higher than the sum of the participants at MIT have to bear as private costs, then it is called external costs of MIV.
Non-motorized individual transport
Non-motorized transport for individual use as bicycle, bike taxi and your own feet are called " non- motorized individual " (acronym: NMIV ) refers. Apart from the disadvantage of being able to travel shorter distances, to transport less and be more exposed to weather an alternative to cars and public transport, the NMIV but also has significant advantages: it causes no emissions and virtually no noise emissions; the energy consumption is limited to the body's energy consumption is even lower than when walking based, external energy is not required for the distance traveled during cycling. In addition, the area requirement of the NMIV is significantly lower than that of the car and public transport. Significantly lower space requirements, both in resting and in flowing traffic and less technical demands on the transportation facilities entails usually much lower transport infrastructure costs for the NMIV and allow shorter paths. The individual costs are generally lower. In addition, positive effects on an individual's health through increased physical activity arise. For this comparison, the transport demand is influenced by various environmental initiatives always derived, giving the NMIV in transport planning takes precedence over the MIV.
- The modal split indicates the distribution of traffic between different modes of transport.
- Soft mobility refers to the priority use of non-motorized individual and public transport.