Aschheim studied medicine at the Universities of Berlin and Freiburg, where he received his doctorate in 1901 with the dissertation to knowledge of Erythrocytenbildung for Dr. med. At several hospitals he was then working as a medical assistant before 1908 he became head of the laboratory at the University Hospital Charité in Berlin. Since 1930, Aschheim lecturer and since 1931 honorary professor at the Friedrich- Wilhelms-Universität. After coming to power of the Nazis in 1935 he dismissed because of his Jewish origin of all his offices and two years later emigrated to France, where he was employed until 1957 at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique in Paris. In 1955 he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin.
Focus of the work Aschheim was the hormonal balance of the woman. He discovered the hormone content of the urine of pregnant women, thereby allowing the analysis of estrogens. Together with Bernhard Zondek he developed the Aschheim- Zondek reaction and wrote 1930 " The pregnancy diagnosis from the urine ."